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Kamen, Dean
Dean Kamen is an American inventor who has invented many revolutionary devices and holds over 35 U.S. patents. He developed the portable medical infusion pump, which allows patients to receive medication, like insulin, away from the hospital, and has allowed diabetic women to carry and deliver babies much more safely. Kamen designed the iBot, a revolutionary wheelchair (that uses gyroscopes and computers) that the user "wears" - it allows increased mobility (it can even climb stairs) and improved social interaction (the user can "stand"). He also invented intravascular stents (devices that hold blocked arteries open) and the portable kidney dialysis machine, which has enabled kidney dialysis patients to avoid long hospital visits - they can do the dialysis themselves while they sleep. The Segway is a rechargable electric, single-person vehicle he invented.

Kamen founded an educational learning center for children called Science Enrichment Encounters (or "SEE"), and FIRST ("For the Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology") which has a yearly robot competition for high school students.

Karle, Isabella L.
Isabella Helen Lugoski Karle (1921- ) is a American physical chemist who invented new methods of X-ray Crystallography. She used electron diffraction and then x-ray diffraction to study the structure of molecules. Karle developed a three-dimensional modeling process, enabling her to identify and show the structures of hundreds of complex and important molecules (including alkaloids, ionophores, steroids, toxins, and peptides [amino acid compounds]). Because of Karle's process, the number of published molecular analyses has jumped from about 150 to over 10,000 per year. Karle received the National Medal of Science in 1995. Karle is a senior scientist and head of the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) x-ray diffraction section in the Laboratory for the Structure of Matter. Karle's husband, Jerome Karle, is a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry.
Keller, Helen
Helen Keller (1880-1968) was a remarkable woman who lost her sight and hearing when she was a young child. Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, and when she was 1 1/2 years old, she became very ill, and as a result, became bothy blind and deaf. At the age of seven, Anne Sullivan began to tutor Helen. Sullivan taught Helen how to communicate with the world using the manual alphabet (sign language pressed into the hand). The first word whe learned to sign was "water." Helen rapidly learned, and later went on the graduate Radcliffe College and write 10 books (including her biographt, "The Story of My Life"), meet with many US Presidents, worked for many philanthropic foundations for the blind, and traveled the world. Helen Keller died at age 87.

King Jr., Martin Luther
MLK
Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) was a great man who worked for racial equality in the USA. He was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. After graduating from college and getting married, Dr. King became a minister and moved to Alabama. During the 1950's, Dr. King became active in the movement for civil rights and racial equality. He participated in the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott and many other peaceful demonstrations that protested the unfair treatment of African-Americans. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. Dr. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. Commemorating the life of a tremendously important leader, we celebrate Martin Luther King Day each year in January.

For more information on Dr. King, click here.

Kino, Eusebio
Eusebio Francisco Kino mapFather Eusebio Francisco Kino, S. J., (Aug. 10, 1645 - March 15, 1711) was a Jesuit priest, missionary, explorer, map-maker, mathematician, and astronomer. Kino was a missionary who founded many missions and explored areas in southwestern North America (Pimería Alta), including areas in what are now northern Sonora (Mexico), southern California (USA) and southern Arizona (USA).

For more information on Kino, click here.

Kirkland, James I.
James Ian Kirkland (1954- ) is an American geologist and paleontologist who has studied dinosaurs from the soutwestern USA for over 20 years, discovering many new and important genera. Kirkland named (or co-named) the dinosaurs: Animantarx (Carpenter, Kirkland, Burge, and Bird, 1999), "Eohadrosaurus" (Kirkland, 1997 [nomen nudum]), Eolambia (Kirkland, 1998), Gastonia (Kirkland, 1998), Mymoorapelta (Kirkland and Carpenter, 1994), Nedcolbertia (Kirkland, Britt, Whittle, S. K. Madsen, and Burge, 1998), Utahraptor (Kirkland, Burge, and Gaston, 1993), and Zuniceratops (Wolfe and Kirkland, 1998). Kirkland is an adjunct Professor of Geology at Mesa State College, Grand Junction, Colorado, a research Associate of the Denver Museum of Natural History, and a Utah State Paleontologist with the Utah Geologic Survey.
Kirkwood, Daniel
Daniel Kirkwood (1814-1895) was an American astronomer who discovered the radial gaps in the asteroid belt in 1866 (now known as the Kirkwood gaps). Kirkwood also hypothesized that Saturn's moon Enceladus creates the Cassini division with its gravitational attraction (but astronomers today think that Mimas causes it).
Kuiper, Gerard
Gerard P. Kuiper was a Dutch-American astronomer who who predicted the existence of the Kuiper belt in 1951. The Kuiper belt is a region beyond Neptune in which at least 70,000 small objects orbit. This belt is located from 30 to 50 (?) A.U.'s and was discovered in 1992. It is a region where the planet-building process was stopped in before any large objects were formed; there are only primitive remnants from the early accretion disk of the solar system, 4.5 billion years ago. The Kuiper belt may be the source of the short-period comets (like Halley's comet).
Kwolek, Stephanie Louise
Stephanie Louise Kwolek (1923- ) is an American chemist who discovered kevlar and many other para-aramid fibers. Kevlar (poly[p-phenyleneterephtalamide]) is a polymer fiber that is five times stronger than the same weight of steel. Kevlar is used in bullet-proof vests, helmets, trampolines, tennis rackets, and many other commonly-used objects.

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