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Zoom Astronomy
THE EARTH
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The Seasons and Axis Tilt


The Earth's seasons are not caused by the differences in the distance from the Sun throughout the year (these differences are extremely small). The seasons are the result of the tilt of the Earth's axis.

The Earth's axis is tilted from perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic by 23.45°. This tilting is what gives us the four seasons of the year - spring, summer, autumn (fall) and winter. Since the axis is tilted, different parts of the globe are oriented towards the Sun at different times of the year.

Summer is warmer than winter (in each hemisphere) because the Sun's rays hit the Earth at a more direct angle during summer than during winter and also because the days are much longer than the nights during the summer. During the winter, the Sun's rays hit the Earth at an extreme angle, and the days are very short. These effects are due to the tilt of the Earth's axis.

Solstices
The solstices are days when the Sun reaches its farthest northern and southern declinations. The winter solstice occurs on December 21 or 22 and marks the beginning of winter (this is the shortest day of the year). The summer solstice occurs on June 21 and marks the beginning of summer (this is the longest day of the year).

Equinoxes
Equinoxes are days in which day and night are of equal duration. The two yearly equinoxes occur when the Sun crosses the celestial equator.

The vernal equinox occurs in late March (this is the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of fall in the Southern Hemisphere); the autumnal equinox occurs in late September (this is the beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of spring in the Southern Hemisphere).

Related Pages:


The Seasons of the Year
A Label Me! Printout

Label summer, autumn, winter, and spring in English.


The Seasons #2

Label summer, spring, winter, and fall.


Seasons Theme Page

Information, crafts, and printouts on the seasons for early learners.
Spelling words

Seasons Word Pieces Puzzle

In this puzzle, combine pairs of word segments to make seasons-related spelling words. Words: autumn, axis, equinox, fall, seasons, solstice, spring, summer, tilt, vernal, winter, year. Or go to the answers.


Solstice Printout

Read about solstices, see a diagram, learn what they are and why they occur.


A Quiz on the Seasons

Take a quiz on the seasons. Or go to the answers.
Earth's orbit

Leap Year

Read about what a leap year is, why we have leap years (to keep the seasons in synch with the calendar), and how often we have a leap year.

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Our subscribers' grade-level estimate for this page: 4th
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