Anatomy: The Northern Cardinal is 8-9 inches (20.5-23 cm) long and has a wingspread of 10 -12 inches (25-31 cm). It weighs from 1 to 2 ounces (28-57 gm). It has a short, wide, red, cone-shaped bill and a pointed crest of feathers on its head. Males have brilliant red feathers, a tall head crest, a wide, red bill, and a black face. Females and juveniles are gray-olive above and paler below, with some deep red on the crest, wings, and tail, and a bright pink-to-orange bill.
Diet: Cardinals eat seeds (crushing them with a powerful bill), insects, snails, and maple sap.
Nest and Eggs: The Cardinal's nests are bowl-like and made from grass and twigs. Nests are built in bushes. Eggs are whitish with brown and gray marking; females lay 2-5 eggs in each clutch (a set of eggs laid at one time).
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