Advertisement.

EnchantedLearning.com is a user-supported site.
As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.
Click here to learn more.

ad
(Already a member? Click here.)


You might also like:
Shark Glossary: AWHALE SHARK - Zoom SharksShark ExtremesShark Anatomy and BehaviorSharks - Table of ContentsToday's featured page: Hermit Crab



Table of Contents
Enchanted Learning
All About Sharks!

Geologic Time Chart
Introduction to Sharks Introduction to Rays Anatomy Shark and Ray Species Extreme Sharks Extinct Sharks Classification Shark Glossary Shark Index Printables, Worksheets, and Activities

Shark Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U-Z

Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject.
If the shark or shark term you are looking for is not in the dictionary, please e-mail us.

G



GALAPAGOS SHARK

Carcharhinus galapagensis is an aggressive shark that is dark gray on top, off-white on the belly. It is a benthic (bottom) feeder, eating prey from the ocean floor. Order Carcharhiniformes.
Bull shark

GANGES SHARK

This is a common name used for two sharks, including Carcharhinus leucas (also known as the Bull shark, the Cub shark, the River shark, the Nicaragua shark, the Zambezi shark, the Shovelnose shark, the Slipway gray shark, the Square-nose shark, and Van Rooyen's shark) and Glyphis gangeticus. Both are large, fierce predators that eat fish (including other sharks) rays, and just about anything else. They have been known to attack people and will venture into fresh water and estuaries.

GASTROPOD

Gastropods are a class of mollusks that have a sucker-like foot. These soft-bodied invertebrates include the common garden snail and the slug.

GENUS

In classification, a genus is a group of related or similar organisms. A genus contains one or more species. A group of similar genera (the plural of genus) forms a family. In the scientific name of an organism, the first name is its genus (for example, people are Homo sapiens - our genus is Homo).

GEOLOGICAL TIME

The history of the earth is described in geological time, which is measured in millions of years and billions of years. The divisions used are: eon, era, period, and epoch.


GEOLOGY

Geology is the study of the Earth's structure, including rocks.

GEOLOGIST

A geologist is a scientist who studies geology.


GIANT SQUID

(pronounced ark-ee-TOO-this) Architeuthis is the giant squid. It is the largest squid and the largest invertebrate (animal without a backbone), but it has never been seen since it lives very deep in the oceans. The largest-known Architeuthis was 57 feet (17.5 m) long. It has eight arms, two longer feeding tentacles, a beak, a large head, and two eyes larger than basketballs! These soft-bodied cephalopods are fast-moving carnivores that catch prey with their tentacles, then poison it with a bite from beak-like jaws. They move by squirting water through a siphon, a type of jet propulsion. Only dead examples of Architeuthis have been found. Its only enemy is the sperm whale who hunts it deep in the ocean.

GILL RAKERS

Gill rakers are bristly structures (the bristles are about 4 inches or 10 cm long) in a filter-feeding shark's mouth that catch plankton which the shark then swallows. The whale shark and the basking shark have gill rakers.


GILLS

Gills are organs that fish and amphibians use to breathe underwater. Sharks breathe using gills.


GOBLIN SHARK

Mitsukurina owstoni is a rarely-seen, slow-swimming shark that grows to be about 11 feet (3.3 m) long. It has soft, pale, pink-gray skin, a long, flat, pointed snout, low, rounded fins and a long, asymmetrical tail fin. The teeth in the front of the mouth are very long and sharp, the type used for catching fish; the teeth in the back of the mouth are small and used for crushing its prey. Its jaws can project open quickly in order to catch prey. The jaws can protrude during eating, giving the goblin a very unusual look. This bottom-dweller is found in depths of about 3,940 feet (1,200 m) in the western Pacific, the western Indian Ocean and the western and eastern Atlantic. Classification: Order Lamniformes
Gondwana

GONDWANALAND

Gondwanaland (also known as Gondwana) was the southern supercontinent formed after Pangaea broke up during the Jurassic period. It included what are now South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica.


GRAY NURSE SHARK

The gray nurse shark (Eugomphodus taurus) is also known Sandtigers, Ragged tooth shark, the sand shark, and the spotted ragged-tooth shark. They are widespread Mackerel sharks (Lamniformes) that range from gray to brown and are about 10-12 feet (3-3.7 m) long. They are fish-eaters that have long, sharp teeth in a narrow snout. They eat and migrate in groups; their activity peaks at night. They are found mostly near coastlines, from the surface down to depths of 3,900 ft (1,200 m). At birth they are about 3 ft (1 m) long. Classification: Order Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks), Family Odontaspididae (Sandtiger sharks).

GRAY REEF SHARK

The gray reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, also known as the longnose blacktail shark, is a common shark in the central Pacific Ocean. It averages 6 feet (1.8 m) long but can be up to 8 feet (2.5 m) long. Its tail fin has a dark line along the back edge. The teeth are triangular and serrated. These sharks have an anal fin, 5 gill slits, 2 dorsal fins, no fin spines, a mouth located behind the eyes, and nictitating eyelids. This shark is viviparous, having litters of 1-6 pups after a gestation period of about 1 year. At birth, pups are about 2 feet (60 cm) long. Maturity is reached at 7 years of age (when they are 4.25 feet (1.3 m) long. Classification: Order Carcharhiniformes, Family Carcharhinidae (requiem sharks).

GRAY SMOOTHHOUND SHARK

Mustelus californicus, the gray smoothhound shark, is a harmless bottom dwelling reef shark. It is a mottled gray color and has barbels. It is also known as the dogfish, paloma, sand shark, or gray shark. It forages wide areas of the reef for, worms, clams, crabs, shrimp, octopuses, and small fish. It has short, blunt teeth plus small grinding plates for crushing shellfish. The gray smoothhound reproduces via aplacental viviparity with a gestation period of about one year.
great white shark

GREAT WHITE SHARK

Carcharodon carcharias is a large oceanic predator, up to 23 feet (7 m) long, weighing over 7,000 pounds (3200 kg) It has 3,000 teeth and eats pinnipeds (sea lions and seals), small toothed whales, otters, and sea turtles.
Greenland shark

GREENLAND SHARK

Somniosus microcephalus, also known as the Greenland shark, the sleeper shark and the gurry shark, lives very deep in the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at depths down to 1,800 feet (550 m) in very cold water (36-45°F=2-7°C). It is up to 21 feet (6.5 m) long. This grayish-brown shark has a short snout and is a slow swimmer. Bioluminescent (glowing) copepods attach to the Greenland shark's eyes attract prey to the shark's head! The shark's upper teeth are long and sharp; the lower teeth are flatter, more closely-set (and also sharp). These sharks gather in large numbers in shallow Arctic waters (up to 80° north) during the winter but migrate back to deep waters during the summer. Eskimo hunters traditionally used its skin for boots and its teeth for knives. This large shark reproduces via aplacental viviparity, having litters of about 10 pups, each roughly 15 inches (38 cm) long. Classification: Order Squaliformes, Family Squalidae (dogfish sharks)


GREY NURSE SHARK

Also known as the sandtiger shark (Eugomphodus taurus), they are widespread Mackerel sharks (Lamniformes) that range from gray to brown and are about 10-12 feet (3-3.7 m) long. They are fish-eaters that have long, sharp teeth in a narrow snout. They eat and migrate in groups; their activity peaks at night. They are found mostly near coastlines, from the surface down to depths of 3,900 ft (1,200 m). are oviphagous and females have two uterine chambers (wombs). Developing embryos in the wombs are cannibalistic, eating their siblings. Although many embryos are produced, only two are born, one from each uterine chamber. The gestation period is about 8-9 months. Pups are roughly 3.3 feet (1 m) long at birth. Classification: Order Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks), Family Odontaspididae (Sandtiger sharks). Also known as the sandtiger, sand shark, ragged tooth, and spotted ragged-tooth.
Tiger shark

GROUND SHARKS

A clade of sharks with 5 gill slits, two dorsal fins, an anal fin, no fin spines, the mouth behind the eyes, and nictitating eyelids. The ground sharks include: catsharks, swellsharks, shysharks, houndsharks, weasel sharks, requiem and hammerhead sharks.
Greenland shark

GURRY SHARK

Somniosus microcephalus, also known as the Greenland shark, and the sleeper shark, lives very deep in the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at depths down to 1,800 feet (550 m) in very cold water (36-45°F=2-7°C). It is up to 21 feet (6.5 m) long. This grayish-brown shark has a short snout and is a slow swimmer. Bioluminescent (glowing) copepods attach to the Greenland shark's eyes attract prey to the shark's head! The shark's upper teeth are long and sharp; the lower teeth are flatter, more closely-set (and also sharp). These sharks gather in large numbers in shallow Arctic waters (up to 80° north) during the winter but migrate back to deep waters during the summer. Eskimo hunters traditionally used its skin for boots and its teeth for knives. This large shark is oviviparous, having litters of about 10 pups, each roughly 15 inches (38 cm) long. Classification: Order Squaliformes, Family Squalidae (dogfish sharks)
Zoom Sharks
Shark Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U-Z

Click on an underlined word for more information on that subject.
If the shark or shark term you are looking for is not in the dictionary, please e-mail us.

Enchanted Learning®
Over 35,000 Web Pages
Sample Pages for Prospective Subscribers, or click below

Overview of Site
What's New
Enchanted Learning Home
Monthly Activity Calendar
Books to Print
Site Index

K-3
Crafts
K-3 Themes
Little Explorers
Picture dictionary
PreK/K Activities
Rebus Rhymes
Stories
Writing
Cloze Activities
Essay Topics
Newspaper
Writing Activities
Parts of Speech

Fiction
The Test of Time
iPhone app
TapQuiz Maps - free iPhone Geography Game

Biology
Animal Printouts
Biology Label Printouts
Biomes
Birds
Butterflies
Dinosaurs
Food Chain
Human Anatomy
Mammals
Plants
Rainforests
Sharks
Whales
Physical Sciences: K-12
Astronomy
The Earth
Geology
Hurricanes
Landforms
Oceans
Tsunami
Volcano
Languages
Dutch
French
German
Italian
Japanese (Romaji)
Portuguese
Spanish
Swedish
Geography/History
Explorers
Flags
Geography
Inventors
US History

Other Topics
Art and Artists
Calendars
College Finder
Crafts
Graphic Organizers
Label Me! Printouts
Math
Music
Word Wheels

Click to read our Privacy Policy

E-mail


Enchanted Learning Search

Search the Enchanted Learning website for:



Advertisement.



Advertisement.



Advertisement.


Copyright ©1996-2016 EnchantedLearning.com ------ How to cite a web page