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Obama, Barack
ObamaBarack Obama (born August 4, 1961) was the 44th President of the United States of America. He was first elected President on November 4, 2008 (as a Democrat), and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. He was re-elected for a second term in 2012. His Vice-President both times was Joseph Biden. Barack Obama ws the first African-American president of the USA. Obama was born in Hawaii. His father, also called Barack Obama, was from Kogelo, Kenya, Africa; his mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, was from Kansas, USA.

Obama graduated from Columbia University (1983), then worked as a community organizer in Chicago, Illinois. He graduated from Harvard Law School (1991) and was the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review. Michelle Robinson and Obama married in 1992; they have 2 daughters. He was elected to the Illinois State Senate in 1996, 1998, and 2002 (he lost in 2000). Obama was elected to the US Senate in 2004 (Dem-IL). Barack has written two books, Dreams from My Father (1995) and The Audacity of Hope (2006). Obama won the Nobel Peace Prize in October, 2009.

Ohio
Ohio is a state in the United States of America. Its capital is Columbus.

Ohio was the 17th state in the USA; it became a state on March 1, 1803.

Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state in the United States of America. Its capital is Oklahoma City.

Oklahoma was the 46th state in the USA; it became a state on November 16, 1907.

Onizuka, Ellison S.
Ellison Shoji Onizuka (June 24, 1946 - January 28, 1986) was a Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Air Force, an aerospace engineer, and a NASA astronaut. Onizuka flew on two Space Shuttle missions; he died in the Challenger explosion on January 28, 1986.

For more information on Onizuka, click here.

Onate, Juan de
Juan de Oñate y Salazar (1550?-1626) was a Spanish conquistador who established the colony of New Mexico for Spain and became New Mexico's first governor. Oñate, the son of a conquistador who made a fortune in silver, was married to a granddaughter of Hernán Cortés. In 1595, Oñate requested that he be sent to conquer and rule New Mexico, search for treasure (especially the legendary silver treasure of Quivira), and bring Christianity to the local Indians. After governmental approval, Oñate left for New Mexico in January, 1598, with 400 settlers and soldiers (and their livestock). In July 1598, the expedition crossed the Rio Grande at El Paso. They arrived at the Tewa pueblo of San Juan and were helped by the local Indians. Oñate's group built San Gabriel, New Mexico's first capital. After they realized that the area was not rich in silver, many settlers wanted to return to Mexico, but Oñate would not let them go, and executed many of them. He was also incredibly brutal to the local Indians, killing, enslaving, and mutilating hundreds of Indian men, women, and children.

In 1601, Oñate led an expedition to the Great Plains of America that tried, unsuccessfully, to find the legendary silver of Quivira (thought to be in what is now central Kansas, east of Salina). While he was gone, most of his settlers returned to Mexico City. In 1604, he explored the area west toward the Colorado River and south to the Gulf of California. In 1606, Oñate made plans for the town of Santa Fé.

Later in 1606, Spain removed him from office (Don Pedro de Peralta was appointed to be the new governor); Oñate was later tried and found guilty of cruelty, immorality, mismanagement, dereliction of duties, and false reporting. Oñate was exiled from the colony. Later, on appeal, he was was cleared of the charges. Onate, sometimes called the "Last Conquistador," died in Spain in 1626.

Go to a printable read-and-answer worksheet on Onate. Or go to a pdf of the quiz + answers.

Oregon
Oregon is a state in the western United States of America. Its capital is Salem.

Oregon was the 33rd state in the USA; it became a state on February 14, 1859.

Osborn, Henry
Henry F. Osborn (1857-1935) was a US paleontologist who found and named many dinosaurs in Mongolia and the US in the early 1900's. He was the curator of the American Museum of Natural History starting in 1891. He did extensive research on brontotheres ( early, rhino-like mammals). Osborn also named and described the following dinosaurs: Albertosaurus (1905), Asiatosaurus (1924), Ornitholestes (1903), Oviraptor (1924), Pentaceratops (1923), Prodeinodon (1924), Psittacosaurus (1923), Saurornithoides (1924), Struthiomimus (1916), Tyrannosaurus (1905), and Velociraptor (1924).
Ostrom, John H.
John H. Ostrom is a US paleontologist and author who found (1964) and named (1969) Deinonychus with Grant E. Meyer et alia. He named Microvenator (1970), Sauropelta (1970), and Tenontosaurus (1970). Ostrom has championed the theory that birds arose from theropod dinosaurs. Ostrom also argued that the dinosaur's must have high body temperatures given their erect posture (1969). Ostrom's books include "The Strange World of Dinosaurs" (Putnam, 1964), "Dinosaurs" (Carolina Biological Supply Co., 1984), "Marsh's Dinosaurs : The Collections from Como Bluff" (with McIntosh and Dodson, Yale Univ Press, 2000), and others. The Cretaceous period bird/dinosaur Rahonavis ostromi was named to honor Ostrom.
Otis, Elisha Graves
Elisha Graves Otis (1811-1861) was an American mechanic and inventor. Otis invented the elevator brake, which greatly improved the safety of elevators. He used a ratchet on a spring to catch the elevator in the event of an accident (like a broken cable). In 1854, at the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York, Otis demonstrated how safe his elevator was by cutting the elevator's cable with an ax, and the elevator car stayed where it was in the shaft. Otis' invention spurred the development of skyscrapers, changing the look of cities around the world forever. Otis also invented a railway safety brake and improvements to turbine engines and brass bed frames.

Owens, Jesse
Owens
Jesse Owens (Sept. 12, 1913 - Mar. 31, 1980) was one of the world's greatest track and field athletes. At the 1936 Berlin Olympic games, Jesse Owens won 4 gold medals (in the 100 meter, 200 meter, 400 meter relay and the long jump) , set two Olympic records, and tied another. This humiliated Hitler and was an affront to his racial theories - Hitler had assumed that the "Aryans" (the Germanic race) would easily win. A year earlier, as an Ohio State University student, Owens set new world records in the 220 yard dash, the 200 yard hurdles, and the long jump (and equaled the record in the 100 yard) at the National Collegiate Track and Field Meet (on May 25, 1935).

Go to a page on Jesse Owens. Or go to the printable version.

Go to a cloze (fill-in-the-blank) activity on Owens.

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