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Rock and Mineral Dictionary
Vabanite is a type of brown-red jasper with yellow flecks that is found in California, USA.
Variscite, AlPO4-2H2O, Hydrated Aluminum Phosphate, (also called Utahlite) is a relatively rare translucent pastel green to emerald green gemstone with blue or yellow overtones (it is similar to chrysocolla, chrysoprase and turquoise). Variscite is found in the USA (in Utah and Nevada), Germany, Brazil, and Australia (in Queensland). Variscite has a hardness of 4.0 - 5.0 and a specific gravity of 2.57. It is not enhanced.
A vent is an opening in the earth's surface through which volcanic materials (like lava, gases, and pyroclastic debris) erupt.
Venus' hair stone
Venus' hair stone is another name for rutilated quartz.
Vienna turquoise is fake turquoise made by compressing a precipitate of aluminum phosphate (colored with copper oleate).
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow of a liquid. Viscous liquids flow very slowly; less viscous fluids flow more quickly. For example, water has a low viscosity while oil has a higher viscosity.
Vitreous means glass-like.
Volcanic ash is a harsh abrasive type of ash (unlike ash from a wood fire) that is made up of small rock, mineral, and volcanic glass fragments (these fragments are less than 0.1 inch (2 mm) in diameter).
A volcanic block is a chunk of rock (over 64 mm) that is ejected (thrown) from a volcano. Blocks usually originate from the volcano's cone and are solid chunks of older lava flows.
A volcanic bomb is a chunk of viscous lava (over 64 mm) that is ejected (thrown) from a volcano. Since they are still viscous when sjected, they often have rounded, aerodynamic shapes. Type of bombs include: breadcrust bombs, ribbon bombs, spindle bombs, spheroidal bombs, and "cow-dung" bombs.
Volcanic dust is a solidified lava that is tiny particles. It is ejected from volcanos during an eruption.
Volcanic glass is another name for obsidian.
A volcanic neck (also called a volcanic plug) is solidified lava that fills the conduit of a volcano.
A volcanic plug (also called a volcanic neck) is solidified lava that fills the conduit of a volcano.
A volcanic seamount is an underwater volcano that rises at least 50-100 m above the sea floor. Some seamounts rise above the water's surface.
A volcano is a place on the Earth's surface (or any other planet's or moon's surface) where molten rock, gases and pyroclastic debris erupt through the earth's crust. Volcanoes vary quite a bit in their structure - some are cracks in the earth's crust where lava erupts, and some are domes, shields, or mountain-like structures with a crater at the summit. Some types of volcanoes include: caldera, cinder cone, hornito, lava dome, maar, mud volcano, shield volcano, spatter cone, and stratovolcano. The word volcano is from Latin; it comes from the ancient Romans god of fire and metalworking, Vulcan.
Volatiles are elements that have a very low boiling temperature. Examples include nitrogen, helium, water, carbon dioxide. Volatiles are usually found in liquid or gaseous form (except at very cold temperatures).
Vulcanite (also called ebonite) is a hard, moldable, polished dark colored (ranging from brown to black) early rubber. Vulcanite was produced by adding sulfur to vulcanized rubber. It was used for combs, ornaments, and buttons. It is not the same as gutta percha.
Rock and Mineral Dictionary
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