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Hale, George E.
George Ellery Hale (June 9, 1868 - February 21, 1938) was an astronomer who founded the Yerkes Observatory (1892), the Mt. Wilson Observatory (in 1904), and the Palomar Observatory. Hale invented the spectroheliograph (a device used to analyse the Sun's spectrum) when he was an undergraduate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA). Later, Hale discovered that sunspots were low-temperature areas on the sun and that they had high magnetic fields.
Hall, Asaph
Asaph Hall (1829-1907) was an American astronomer who discovered Mars' two moons, Phobos and Deimos, on August 12, 1877, at the U. S. Naval Observatory's 26-inch refracting telescope.
Hamilton, Alexander
Alexander Hamilton (1755 - 1804) was one of the Founding Fathers of the USA. During the American Revolutionary war, Hamilton fought in the Continental Army. Later, Hamilton was a delegate in the Constitutional Convention and then worked for the ratification of the newly-written US Constitution.

Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury (during George Washington's Presidency). He established a national bank, began the sale of long-term government bonds (to help pay off government debt incurred during the Revolutionary War), and proposed tariffs (in order to raise money for the government). Hamilton led the Federalist Party (a political party that worked for a strong central government, wanting more power for the federal government and less for the states).

Aaron Burr (one of Hamilton's long-time political opponents) challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton died on July 12, 1804, the day after he was shot in the duel.

Harding, Warren
Warren Gamaliel Harding (1865-1923) was the 29th president of the United States. Harding was born on November 2, 1865, near Corsica, Ohio. During his presidency (he served from 1921 until 1923), Harding hired some dishonest and unqualified people to his cabinet. This brought many scandals, including the Teapot Dome scandal (involving oil field leases), which tarnished Harding's reputation and overshadowed almost everything else he did in his term. Prohibition (the 18th Constitutional Amendment that made the use of alcohol illegal - it was later repealed) began during Harding's presidential term. Harding died in office on August 2, 1923, in San Francisco, California.
Harrison, Benjamin
Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) was the 23rd president of the United States. Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Ohio. While running for presidency against current president Grover Cleveland, Cleveland got more popular votes, but Harrison won the election since he had received more electoral votes. Harrison's increased tariffs (taxes) on foreign goods and increased government spending caused him to lose the 1882 presidential election to Grover Cleveland. Harrison died on March 13, 1901, in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Harrison, William H.
William H. Harrison (1773-1841) was the ninth president of the United States. Harrison was born on February 9, 1773, in Charles City County, Virginia. He was president for only 30 days in 1841. When he was delivering his inauguration, he caught a cold which turned into pneumonia and killed him in a month. Harrison had the shortest term of any U.S. president, and was the first president to die while in office. Harrison died in the White House on April 4, 1841.
Hawaii is the 50th state of the United States of America. Its capital is Honolulu. Hawaii became a state on August 21, 1959.

Hawaii was the 50th state in the USA; it became a state on August 21, 1959.

Hayes, Rutherford
Rutherford Hayes (1822-1893) was the 19th president of the United States. Hayes was born on October 4, 1822, in Delaware, Ohio. Hayes ended the Reconstruction of the South after the Civil War. During his term as president (1877-1881) the country became more prosperous, but Hayes did not run for a second term. He died on January 17, 1893, in Fremont, Ohio.
Hendrickson, Sue
Sue Hendrickson (December 2, 1949 - ) is a self-taught fossil hunter (specializing in fossil inclusions in amber), marine archaeologist, adventurer and explorer. In South Dakota in 1990, Hendrickson found the remarkable T. rex fossil that is now known as Sue. This T. rex fossil is the largest and most complete T. rex found to date. Sue (the fossil) is now displayed at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois, USA.

For more information on Hendrickson, click here.

Henry, Patrick
Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 - June 6, 1799) is one of the founding fathers of the United States of America and a champion of individual liberty. He was an influential figure in the American Revolution and is famous for his "Give me liberty ot give me death" speech on freedom from British tyranny, after which the colony of Virginia joined the American revolution. He served as the first (1775 to 1779) and sixth (1784 to 1786) governor of the state of Virginia.

"Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!" Patrick Henry , March 23, 1775, at the Virginia House of Burgesses.

Henson, Matthew A.
Matthew Alexander Henson (Aug. 8, 1866 - March 9, 1955) was an American explorer and one of the first people to visit the North Pole. He was on most of Robert E. Peary's expeditions, including the 1909 trip to the North Pole.

For more information on Henson, click here.

Go to a cloze activity on Henson.

Hitchcock, Edward B.
Edward B. Hitchcock (1835-1864) was a US clergyman and geologist who found the first large dinosaur trackways (in Connecticut, USA). Hitchcock collected over 20,000 dinosaur fossil footprints; he thought that the trackways had been made by huge, extinct birds (and was essentially correct).
Holtz, Thomas
Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. (1965- ) is an American vertebrate paleontologist and author. Holtz is a lecturer at the Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park. He was born in Los Angeles and spent his early childhood near Houston, Texas. He was an undergraduate at the Johns Hopkins University, and received his Ph. D. at Yale University. Holtz's main research is on the evolution, anatomy, and ecology of theropod dinosaurs (especially tyrannosaurids). Holtz is the coauthor of The World of Dinosaurs (with Michael Brett-Surman, illus. by James Gurney - Greenwich Workshop Books, 1998), contributor to The Complete Dinosaur [Dinosaur hunters of the Southern Continents and other sections] (ed. James O. Farlow and Michael Brett-Surman - Indiana University Press, 1997), coauthor of the Dinosaur Field Guide (with Michael Brett-Surman - Random House, 2001), author of the Little Giant Book of Dinosaurs (2001, Sterling Press), author of the Tyrannosaur sections of the Univ. of Arizona's Tree of Life classification project on the Web (2000), and has many other publications.
Horner, John R.
John R. (Jack) Horner is a US paleontologist (born on June 15, 1946 in Shelby, Montana) who named: Maiasaura (with Makela, 1979) and Orodromeus (with D.B. Weishampel, 1988). Horner discovered the first egg clutches in the Americas (Maiasaura) and the first evidence of parental care from dinosaurs (also Maiasaura). Horner is the Curator of Paleontology at the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman, Montana, USA. Horner attended the University of Montana, majoring in geology and zoology. Horner is the author of: "Digging Dinosaurs" (Workman Pub., 1988), "Complete T-rex" (with D, Lessem, Simon and Schuster,1993), "Maia, A Dinosaur Grows Up" (Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University, 1985), "Digging Up Tyrannosaurus rex" (with D, Lessem, 1992), "Dinosaur Eggs and Babies" (Cambridge University Press, 1994), and "Dinosaur Lives" (HarperCollins, 1997). Horner was a technical advisor for the movies Jurassic Park and The Lost World.
Hoover, Herbert
Herbert C. Hoover (1874-1964) was the 31st president of the United States. Hoover was born on August 10, 1874, in West Branch, Iowa. Hoover served as president from 1929 until 1933, during the beginning and depths of the Great Depression (this was a time of economic collapse which started in October, 1929, after the New York Stock Exchange prices fell dramatically and many banks closed). By 1933, 13 million Americans were out of work and hd lost their savings. Although Hoover tried to help the economy, much of America thought that he wasn't doing enough. In 1932 he lost his re-election bid to Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hoover died on October 20, 1964, in New York City, New York.
Hopper, Grace M.
Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (1906 - 1992) was a US naval officer and mathematician who invented the computer compiler (called the A-O) in 1952. Her compiler revolutionized computer programming, automatically translating high-level instructions (easier to understand by people) into machine code (the cryptic, native language of the central processing unit). Hopper and a team developed the first user-friendly business programming language, COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language). There is an unconfirmed story that Hopper determined than an error in the early Mark II computer was caused by a moth that was trapped in it; she then coined the term "computer bug."
Houghton, Joel
The first dishwasher was patented in 1850 by Joel Houghton; his machine was a hand-turned wheel that splashed water on dishes - unfortunately, it wasn't very effective at washing dishes. The first working automatic dishwasher was invented by Mrs. Josephine Garis (W. A.) Cochran, of Shelbyville, Illinois, in 1889. Her dishwasher was a wooden tub with a wire basket in it - the dishes went in the basket, and rollers rotated the dishes. As a handle on the tub was turned, hot, soapy water was sprayed into the tub, cleaning the dishes. Cochran's machine was first shown at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, Illinois. At first, her machine was only bought by some restaurants and hotels. Cochran's small company was eventually associated with the KitchenAid company. The dishwasher didn't become widespread as a labor-saving machine until the 1960s.
House of Representatives
The House of Representatives is part of Congress; they propose and vote on legislation (laws). There are 435 members of the House of Representatives (divided by population among the states, with each state having at least 1 representative). There are 435 Congressional districts. Each district has about 570,000 people. Seats (positions) in the House of Representatives are reapportioned every 10 years; since the number of Representatives is set to 435, some areas lose Representatives and others gain some. Representatives are elected to a term of 2 years.
sewing machineHowe, Elias
Elias Howe (1819-1867) was American inventor who patented an improved sewing machine in 1846. His revolutionary machine used two separate threads, one threaded through the needle, and one in a shuttle; it was powered by a hand crank. A sideways-moving needle with its eye at one end would pierce the fabric, creating a loop of thread on the other side; a shuttle would then push thread through the loop, creating a tight lock stitch. Earlier sewing machines used only one thread and a chain stitch that could unravel. Howe's business did not thrive. Others, like Isaac Singer made slight modifications in the machine and built successful businesses. Howe sued those who had infringed on his patent and won royalties on all machines sold (he was paid $5.00 for each sewing machine sold). Howe died the year his patent expired.
Hubble, Edwin P.
Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953) was an American astronomer who was very influential in modern cosmology. He showed that other galaxies (besides the Milky Way) existed and observed that the universe is expanding (since the light from almost all other galaxies is red-shifted).
Hudson, Henry
Henry Hudson (1565-1611) was an English explorer and navigator who explored parts of the Arctic Ocean and northeastern North America. The Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay are named for Hudson.

For more information on Hudson, click here.

Hyde, Ida Henrietta
Henrietta HydeIda Henrietta Hyde (1857-1945) was an American physiologist who invented the microelectrode in the 1930's. The microelectrode is a small device that electrically (or chemically) stimulates a living cell and records the electrical activity within that cell. Hyde was the first woman to graduate from the University of Heidelberg, to do research at the Harvard Medical School and to be elected to the American Physiological Society.

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