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Zoom Dinosaurs
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Questions from September 1999

Q: where did the word fossil come from and what dose it mean?
from lane b, launceston, tasmania, australia; September 30, 1999

A: The word fossil comes from the Latin word "fossilis," which means "dug up."

Q: What species of dinosaurs belonged to the family Sauroritnolestidae
from ?; September 30, 1999

A: I've never heard of this group, but the clade Velociraptorinae (within the Dromaeosaurids) includes the dinosaur genera (not species) Saurornitholestes, Velociraptor, and Deinonychus.

Q: I am puzzled somewhat by sauropod behavior. Diplodocids seem to me built to eat aquatic plants, having thin teeth and the ability to lower their heads below their feet. Tracks of "wading sauropods" and crushed molluscs in sauropod footprints tell us they did sometimes venture into the water. In a computer study on sauropod necks, it was shown that Brachiosaurus couldn't lower its head any less than 5 ft. above the ground. While sauropods were basically terrestrial, I think Brachiosaurus may have waded into the water to drink, and all sauropods may have done this to cool off. What do you think? Are there other ways Brachiosaurus could have gotten water?
from Mary N., Georgia, Vermont, USA; September 30, 1999

A: No one knows exactly what they ate, but the brachiosaurids do seem to have been well-adapted to browsing the tree tops. The diplodocids probably browserd on much lower plants.

The consensus among paleontologists is that Brachiosaurus was a terrestrial animal. It was assumed for many years that giant sauropods spent most of their time in water, letting the water support their weighty bodies while breathing through their lofty nostrils. Now it is believed that they were fully terrestrial, just as Elmer S. Riggs, who first described Brachiosaurus, argued in a 1904 article. He believed, as most modern scientists do, that Brachiosaurus' feet and limbs were not broad enough to support the heavy animal in mud, that its back was flexible enough to support it on land, and that its chest was narrow and deep, which is insufficient for breathing underwater, and inconsistent with modern-day water-dwelling large animals (like hippos). Although some large, wading sauropod footprints have been found, they do not necessarily belong to Brachiosaurus (it's almost impossible to match fossilized footprints to a particular dinosaur genus).

For more information on Brachiosaurus, click here.

Q: Were could I find information on the Apatosaurus?
from Happy T.; September 30, 1999

A: Click here for information on Apatosaurus.

Q: what is the weight of a tenontosaurus
from ?; September 30, 1999

A: Tenontosaurus weighed roughly 500 kg.

Q: It is very urgent that I find out how much the Efraiopsian Psittacosaurus weighs?
from Lisa L., Carlinville, IL, USA; September 30, 1999

A: Psittacosaurus weighed roughly 80 kg.

Q: What is another name for the cretaceous period?
from ?; September 30, 1999

A: I don't know of another scientific name for the Cretaceous Period, but it is the last period in the Mesozoic Era, and is divided into the Senonian, Gallic and Neocomian Epochs and many Ages.

Q: Is there another name for the Elaphrasaurus?
from ?; September 29, 1999

A: Not that I've ever heard of.

Q: How big where coelophysis eggs ?
from Dora G, Miami, FL, USA; September 29, 1999

A: Although over a thousand Coelophysis fossils have been found, no eggs have been discovered. For information on other dinosaur eggs, click here. For information on Coelophysis, click here.

Q: What do the diplodocus,Stegosaurus,Triceratops,and the Tyrannosaurus eat?
from Amanda B, Conover, NC, USA; September 29, 1999

A: Diplodocus, Stegosaurus, and Triceratops were plant-eaters. Tyrannosaurus was a meat-eater. FOr more information on dinosaur diets, click here.

Q: What kind of animal is Tyrannosaurus Rex?
from christie m, albuquerque, new mexico, USA; September 29, 1999

A: Tyrannosaurus rex was a theropod dinosaur. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: Who discovered megalasaurus?
from ?; September 29, 1999

A: Megalosaurus was named by fossil hunter William Buckland in 1824. It was the first dinosaur ever described scientifically and the first theropod dinosaur discovered (it was found by workers in an Oxfordshire, England limestone quarry).

Q: Could you please tell me where most of the fossils for the Saltopus and Eoraptor were found?
from Bethany P., Myerstown, PA, USA; September 29, 1999

A: Saltopus was found in Scotland. Eoraptor was found in the Ischigualasto Basin in Argentina.

Q: one of the more recent questions asked was what does deinos mean and you annswered that it means fearfully but that night I was doing a report and in that report I foud out from zoom dinosaur that deinos means great. Which one is it???
from lou, homer, Alaska, USA; September 28, 1999

A: Translating from the Greek is not an exact science; some translations say that deinos means "fearfully great," others say "terrifying." They pretty much mean the same thing. Zoom DInosaurs says that deinos means "fearfully great", but not just great.

from Kyle T., KADENA AIR BASE OKINAWA JAPAN, OKINAWA, Japan; September 28, 1999

A: Micropachycephalosaurus may in fact be a smaller dinosaur dinosaur than Compsognathus, but only an incomplete fossils of Micropachycephalosaurus has been found thus far, so Micropachycephalosaurus' length is not that certain a figure- I've seen a few estimates, and they vary quite a bit. Compsognathus' length is more certain. Micropachycephalosaurus does, though, have the longest dinosaur name.

Q: Well, I am doing this essay about dinosaurs and I just wanted to know, what type off eggs Compsognathus laid. Were they all brown? Were they hard? Can you tell me all you know about compsognathus's eggs? Oh and one more thing! Did Compsognathus stay near her eggs before they hatched? Or did she buried them some where and leave them?
from Archana, Auckland, New Zealand; September 28, 1999

A: All the known dinosaur eggs are hard-shelled. No eggs have been definitely linked to Compsognathus, but they probably laid eggs. No one knows what colors any dinosaur eggs were. There is no fossil evidence that indicated whether or not Compsognathus nurtured their young at all. For more information on Compsognathus, click here.

Q: where and what was the oldest dinosaur ever recovered
from ?; September 28, 1999

A: Eoraptor

Q: How does the Iguanodon protect himself?
from Lacey B., Watertown, CT, USA; September 28, 1999

A: Iguanodon had almost no defenses, except its hoofed feet and running away. For more information on Iguanodon, click here.

from NAME, STATE, USA; September 28, 1999

A: Styracosaurus fossils have been found in Alberta, Canada and Arizona, USA. For more information on Styracosaurus, click here.

Q: I'm not sure what has led you to conclude the Apatosaurus reproduced by laying eggs. Paleontologist Robert Bakker carefully studied the way Apatosaurus was built and said that it may have been designed to give birth to live young. He also said that small bones found mixed together with the bones of an adult Apatosaurus may have belonged to an unborn baby that had been growing inside its mother, and not a different type of dinosaur. Not hatching from an egg means that a baby Apatosaurus would have had an early start at reaching its adult size, Bakker said that a newborn Apatosaurus would have weighed 200-300 pounds! Please let me know if they found an Apatosaurus egg, or if this theory remains a possibility.
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; September 28, 1999

A: Bakker has a lot of very interesting theories that are not generally accepted; he also argues that sauropods were fully warm-blooded. This would put their food consumption through the roof, and plants were not that lush during the Mesozoic Era. Most paleontologists believe that sauropods (including Apatosaurus) were cold-blooded and laid eggs (a good reference is "The Complete Dinosaur" edited by Farlow and Brett-Surman, 1997, Indiana University Press). Enormous eggs from that time have been discovered, but have not been definitely associated with Apatosaurus. Also, dinosaur ancestors laid eggs as do their descendants (birds), so the egg-laying theory isn't far-fetched.

Q: Dear JC, What mammals or animals lived during the Cretaceous period along with the Giganotosaurus and the Ankylosaurus?
from Claire F., Myerstown, PA, USA; September 28, 1999

A: For a list of Cretaceous animals (mostly dinosaurs), click here.

Q: How did scientists know what kinds of plants and animals lived back then?
from Lisa N., Myerstown, PA, USA; September 28, 1999

A: By looking at fossils.

Q: dear JC, what plant life lived during the jurassic period with the Diplodocus and the Allosaurus dinosaurs??
from Krissy R., Myerstown, PA, USA; September 28, 1999

A: For a list of Jurassic plants, click here.

Q: Dear jc, what other animals lived during the Jurassic time???
from Kristen R, Myerstown, PA, USA; September 28, 1999

A: For a list of Jurassic dinosaurs (listed by continent and by early, middle, or late Jurassic), click here.

Q: When the dinosaures roamed the land I understand it was called Pangea. What did Pangea look like?
from Jennifer G., Phoenicia, NY, USA; September 28, 1999

A: For images and information on Pangaea, click here.

from CAREY, LAUNCESTON, Tasmania, Australia; September 27, 1999

A: No, There were many different types of animals and plants that lived in prehistoric times. For examples, some animals included fish, amphibians, worms, corals, sponges, insects, arachnids, mammals, and birds. See this chart of geologic time for some of the major groups of organisms and when they appeared.

Q: Where are fossils usually found?
from Courtney . M, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia; September 27, 1999

A: Fossils are usually found in exposed sedimentary rock. For more information on finding fossils, click here.

Q: where were some fossils found of stegasaures
from Michael D., Watertown, Connecticut, USA; September 27, 1999

A: Stegosaurus fossils have been found in in western North America (Colorado, especially Dinosaur Ridge, Utah, and Wyoming), western Europe, southern India, China, and southern Africa. For more information on Stegosaurus, click here.

Q: What does deinos mean? What does sauros mean?
from Lesley, C, US; September 27, 1999

A: Deinos means terrifying in Greek; sauros means lizard. For more information on dinosaur names, see the Frequently asked Dinosaur Question #10 above.

Q: How did dinosaurs come to be?
from Rebecca M., North Lauderdale, USA; September 26, 1999

A: For a page on the evolution of dinosaurs, click here.

Q: How many species of dinosaurs are known to man?
from Eleanor H., High Point, North Carolina, USA; September 26, 1999

A: See the Frequently Asked Question #11 above.

Q: What is the subgroup classification of the Microvenator?
from Cassie N., O.K.C., OK, USA; September 26, 1999

A: For this and other information about Microvenator, click here.

Q: I'm doing a report on the Apatosaurs and I can't find any information on it's reproduction. The report is due in 2 days PLEASE HELP ME!! Thanx Alot
from Becca S., Sauk City, Wisconsin, USA; September 26, 1999

A: Very little is known about dinosaur reproduction. Apatosaurus laid eggs but probably did not care for them. For more information about Apatosaurus and its eggs, click here.

Q: "what period did the argentinosaurus dinosaur live in?"
from Soren R., slinger, wisconsin, USA; September 26, 1999

A: Argentinosaurus lived during the late Cretaceous period. For more information about Argentinosaurus, click here.

Q: What kind of habitat did the Velociraptor live in. And what did it look like.
from CA, Dallas, TX, USA; September 26, 1999

A: Velociraptor lived in a hot, dry environment, a desert-like environment with some streams. For more information on Velociraptor, including a drawing, click here.

Q: please help, i need an info sheet including a picture on the syntarsus
from Jack J., USA; September 26, 1999

A: I've added it, click here to go there.

Q: Was there a dinosaur more powerful than t-rex?
from Jenn G., Brampton, Ontario, Canada; September 25, 1999

A: Paleontologists haven't discovered one yet. Although Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus were slightly bigger than T. rex, it wasn't as powerful and probably wasn't as intelligent.

Q: What was the geographical range of Tyrannosaurus Rex?
from Kalyn L, Orefield, PA, USA; September 25, 1999

A: T. rex fossils have been found in western North America and in Mongolia (Asia). For more details on T. rex fossils, click here.

Q: Why hasn't there been any news since May? According to one of my dinosaur books, there should be a new discovery every seven weeks.
from Tyrant lizard; September 24, 1999

A: Your note inspired (prodded) me into adding a nice news item about a new Chinese dromaeosaur (Sinornithosaurus millenii) that may have a downy coat.

Although there are new dinosaur finds on average about every 6 - 7 weeks, there doen't HAVE to be one during was 6-7 week time period. Also, I don't write about every new find, only those that have important implications, like the one I just mentioned, which suggests that dromaeosaurids (like Velociraptor, Utahraptor, and Deinonychus) may have had feathers!

Q: What did Deinocheirus eat, and would it eat me if it got the chance?
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; September 24, 1999

A: Deinocheirus was a large meat-eating dinosaur. No one knows exactly what it ate. For most extinct animals, determining its diet is largely a matter of good guesswork based on its physiology (like tooth sharp, jaw size, etc.) and its habitat. Rarely, fossilized stomach contents are found, but even then, all you known is the makeup of one meal. Some of its contemporaries in late-Cretaceous (about 70 million years ago) Mongolia which it might have eaten (smaller dinosaurs and plant-eaters) included Anserimimus, Bagaceratops, Homalocephale, Nemegtosaurus, Opistocoelicaudia, Prenocephale, Protoceratops, Saurolophus, Wannanosaurus, etc.

If it were hungry, it would probably eat you (given some way of going back in time 70 million years). For more information on Deinocheirus, click here.

Q: How many teeth did Trachodon have?
from christie s., herndon, va, USA; September 23, 1999

A: No one knows. So far, only a few teeth of this mystery dinosaur have been found; paleontologists aren't even sure what type of dinosaur it was. For more information on Trachodon, click here.

Q: Are there any dinosars that name begins with a u and any that start x.
from Ashley C., Auburn, NY, USA; September 23, 1999

A: Yes, quite a few, including Utahraptor and Xiaosaurus. For other, see the Dinosaur Dictionary.

Q: What dinosaurs lived in Alberta?
from Shannon R., Ajax, Ontario, Canada; September 23, 1999

A: For a page on Canadian dinosaurs listed province by province, click here.

Q: What type of diseases did Maiasaura have? I need this for a school project.
from Debby S., The Woodlands, Texas, USA; September 23, 1999

A: I've never heard of a Maiasaura with any detectable disease. Other dinosaurs have been found with diseases, including T. rex, which got gout.

Q: Two dinosaurs that are named for unusual head features?
from ?; September 23, 1999

A: For some dinosaurs that are named for unusual head features, click here.

Q: How do scientists excavate and put together dinosaur bones?
from Mr. D., Toronto, Ontario, Canada; September 23, 1999

A: It's a long, painstaking process. For an introduction to excavating fossils, click here. For info on putting the fossils together, click here.

Q: How did triceratops care for thier young and how did they rest?
from ?; September 23, 1999

A: These are unknown.

Q: what was the name of the person who named the brachiosaurus?
from sherri k., oshkosh, wi, USA; September 23, 1999

A: Paleontologist Elmer S. Riggs named Brachiosaurus in 1903.

Q: Please help. What was the largest dinosaur?
from Shawnte A.; September 23, 1999

A: See the dinosaur faq's above.

Q: What helped the herbivorous dinosaurs eat plants? Did they have teeth?
from Catherine G., Manvel, Texas, USA; September 25, 1999

A: Yes, different plant-eating dinosaurs had different types of teeth. Some also had beaks that probably helped gather food. FOr more information on dinosaur teeth, click here.

Q: How much did the Pachycephalosaurus weigh?
from Rachel L., Paradise Valley, AZ, USA; September 22, 1999

A: Pachycephalosaurus weighed roughly 950 pounds (430 kg). For more information on Pachycephalosaurus, click here.

Q: my questions are about brachiosaurus'. 1.I would like to know what kind of climate that they lived in? 2.what are other dinosaurs were around them? 3.what was the land and water like? 4.what is a really unique and interesting thing about them? did they care for their young? did they nest? 7.what were they eggs like?
from sherri k., oshkosh, wi, USA; September 22, 1999

A: 1. and 3. Brachiosaurus lived from the middle to late Jurassic period, which was a time when the Earth was warmer than it is now and the sea levels were higher (since there was no polar ice). For more information on the climate and geology during this time, click here.
2. For a list of dinosaurs that lived in North America during the middle to late Jurassic period (where and when Brachiosaurus lived), click here and go to the yellow section labeled North America. Then look for dinosaurs that lived during the same time span, from 156-145 million years ago.
4. See the section on Brachiosaurus for a lot of interesting information.
5. and 6. This is unknown.
7. Big. For more info, see the section on Brachiosaurus.

Q: what is the scientific name for the brachiosaurus (genus and species)?
from sherri k., oshkosh, wi, USA; September 22, 1999

A: Brachiosaurus, like all dinosaurs, is known by its genus name. There are many species of Brachiosaurus known; the type species (the one upon which the genus is based) is B. altithorax. For more information on Brachiosaurus, click here.

Q: Do you have any more information on the Carnotaurus? I am doing a report on it and am having trouble finding him many places. How much did he travel? Was he the prey of any other dinosaur? Thanks a lot!
from Kent C., Englewood, Colorado, USA; September 21, 1999

A: No on eknows how far any of the dinosaurs travelled. Since Carnotaurus was a horned meat-eater about 25 feet long, it was probably at the top of its local food chain (having no predators as a healthy adult). Even though Giganotosaurus was one of its contemporaries, Giganotosaurus probably would have had a much easier time catching plant-eaters who couldn't bite back or gore it with horns. For a list of Carnotaurus' known contemporaries in mid-Cretaceous South America, click here and scroll down to the blue section whic represents South America. For more information on Carnotaurus, click here.

Q: where can i find pictures of triceratops?
from Miranda G., Cramerton, North Carolina, USA; September 21, 1999

A: For a picture and information about Triceratops, click here.


A: See the Frequently Asked Questions above.

Q: What do Geosaurus' eat?
from Paula G., Los Angeles, CA, USA; September 21, 1999

A: Given Geosaurus' sharp teeth and watery habitat, it probably lived mostly on fish. For most extinct animals, determining its diet is largely a matter of good guesswork based on its physiology (like tooth sharp, jaw size, etc.) and its habitat. Rarely, fossilized stomach contents are found, but even then, all you known is the makeup of one meal. For more information on Geosaurus, click here.

Q: I checked "Dinosaurs: An A-Z Guide" (Michael Benton, 1988) out from my school library today. I noticed that many dinosaurs mentioned are not included in the dinosaur dictionary. Can you tell me some up-to-date information about these dinosaurs? Dacentrurus; an early European stegosaur Dyoplosaurus; an ankylosaur, may be the same as Euoplocephalus Goyocephale; a pachycephalosaur Ischisaurus; one of the earlist dinosaurs Itemirus; a theropod known only from its braincase Noasaurus; a medium sized hunter with a fierce hooked claw Patagosaurus; a Jurassic sauropod Prosauralophus; a large hadrosaur Secernosaurus; a small, South American duckbill Struthiosaurus; the smallest ankylosaur The theories and classification of these dinosaurs will have changed a great deal since 1988, and I would like to see what modern paleontologists think about them.
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; September 21, 1999

A: I've added them to the Dinosaur Dictionary.

Q: what does saur mean in the word dinosaur
from ?; September 21, 1999

A: "Sauros" means lizard in Greek.

Q: Question
from NAME, CITYSTATE, USA; September 21, 1999


Q: what is a plant eater.
from ?; September 21, 1999

A: A plant-eater (also known as an herbivore) is an animals that eats plants. For more information on dinosaur diets, click here.

Q: Can you tell me about a dinosaurs which is named as Ingoandon "I think it spells correct"I need to know special things about for my schoolwork and I need it today on 21-9-99 or not I will have a scolding from my teacher Can you please help me? From:"Clarence"
from clarence j. j., singapore, singapore; September 20, 1999

A: For information on Iguanoodon, click here.

Q: Who were the enemies of the Brontosaurus?
from Ruth M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; September 20, 1999

A: Disease, injury, and old age were its only killers. Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus' new name) was so big that no meat-eating dinosaur could kill it. Allosaurus was the biggest meat-eater at that time in North America; it was only 15 feet (4.6 m) tall, and couldn't kill an Apatosaurus. For more information on Apatosaurus, click here.

Q: Hi, I was just wondering, is there really a way to clone dinosaurs that might work, like they did in Jurassic Park and the Lost World movies?.
from Jordan M, North Carolina, USA; September 20, 1999

A: No, there isn't a way t oclone dinosaurs with today's technology, but who knows what will be possible in the future. As to the method that uses DNA encased in amber, many scientists think that over 65 million years, the delicate DNA molecules will disentegrate and be useless for cloning.

Q: I need to find information about the therapod Elaphrosaurus - what can you tell me about this dinosaur?
from John C., Duluth, MN, USA; September 19, 1999

A: For information on Elaphrosaurus, click here.

Q: What was Megalosauripus
from ?; September 18, 1999

A: An ichnogenus, a dinosaur genus known from its fossilized tracks. Megalosauripus probably represents tracks from Megalosaurus.

Q: which dinosaur fossils have been found on different continents to support the continental drift theory and is there some from each period starting with the triassic then the jurrasic and creatous?
from ?; September 18, 1999

A: There are many, but here are a few. (BY the way, the plant glossopteris was an important fossil in supporting the therory of continental drift. Late Triassic: Massospondylus has been found in North America and Africa. Late Jurassic: Brachiosaurus has been found in Africa and North America. Late Cretaceous: Saurolophus which was found in Canada and Mongolia. Also from the late Cretaceous, Titanosaurus was found in Argentina, South America and India.

Q: Did Liensternus have a single crest or two parallel crests on its head? In "Dino" Don Lessem's book "Dinosaur Worlds", all of the Lilientsernus pictures are side views, with one suggesting a single crest and another suggesting a double crest.
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; September 18, 1999

A: Lilientsternus had a triangular opening in its skull in front of the eyes, probably a place of attachment for a crest. but I can't find any references to it having a double crest.

Q: what is the oldest dinosaur fossil known to man?
from Anthony R, denver, colorado, USA; September 17, 1999

A: Eoraptor. For information on Eoraptor, click here.

from ALEXIS C.,Miami, FL, USA; September 17, 1999

A: Ferns, horsetails, and conifers. For information on Triassic Era plants, click here.

Q: did dilophosaurus spit out poison
from topper tmo, spring, tx, USA; September 17, 1999

A: No. For information on Dilophosaurus, click here.

Q: I want to be a paleontologist when I'm older and I was wondering what is the best university to go to for that career and how long would I have to go to school.
Thanks, Jessie M

from Jessie M, Kelowna, B.C., Canada; September 16, 1999

A: See your school councellor, they probably have a lot of books (like the Barron's College guide) in which you can look up the particulars of each college that is within your price and academic range. Try to go to an undergraduate program (usually lasting 4 years) that will give you a decent knowledge of geology and biology. Most undergraduates only take one paleontology course (for a preview of this course, see a good college paleontology textbook like "The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs" by Fastovsky and Weishhampel).

A Ph.D. can take at least 4 year years (if you are fast, prepared, efficiant, dedicated, smart, incredibly lucky, and have a nice advisor). The magazine U.S. News and World Report ( 3/29/99) listed the top-ten graduate schools that offer paleontology degrees (but you should probably pick one based on your research interests and how they fit in with those of the faculty of the school). There is probably some similar Canadian list, but I know about it. The US schools ranked as follows:

In the mean time, keep studying

Q: What is Nuthetes
from ?; September 16, 1999

A: For information on Nuthetes, click here.

Q: What was Palaeopteryx
from Trevor, USA; September 16, 1999

A: It was either a dromaeosaurid dinosaur or an early bird; this is in dispute. For more information on Palaeopteryx, click here.

Q: When is Likolesaurus Going to be in the dinosaur dictionary
from ?; September 16, 1999

A: Right now.

Q: When are you going to update this page majorly again
from Don; September 16, 1999

A: I do small updates daily, adding a few new dinosaurs, new dinosaur theories and facts, classroom activities, and, of course, questions and answers. What type of update do you think would be good? (A few days ago, someone suggested a list of all known dinosaur genera and species, which will appear eventually - I'm only up to the C's of the genera so far.)

Q: what was the first place in North American in which dinosaur bones were found
from marah d, phoenixville, pa, USA; September 16, 1999

A: New Jersey. For more information on the first dinosaur found in the USA (and esewhere), click here

Q: Why an how did the T-REX die?
from Rajiv.Z, Dubai, Province, United Arab Emirates; September 16, 1999

A: T. rex wentextinct during the K-T mass extinction, 65 million years ago. For information on T. rex, click here.

Q: my niece is in the 4th grade and is doing a report about the anatosaurus. she needs detail information about- where and how long lived, plant eating (detail info), how much weighted, period lived, description
from kitten e., phila, pa, USA; September 16, 1999

A: Anatosaurus is an obsolete name for Edmontosaurus, a duck-billed dinosaur from the Cretaceous period. For information on Edmontosaurus, click here.

Q: where is corythosaurus's skull
from jai v, Gladstone, Queensland, Australia; September 15, 1999

A: One Corythosaurus is at the Royal Tyrrell Museum in Alberta, Canada.

Q: please tell me one hypothesis about Triceratops. In what way was it different from other dinosaurs . In what ways was it similar to all dinosaurs .One fact that can be proven about them. thanks.
from meenu m, San Jose, CA, USA; September 15, 1999

A: This sounds suspiciously like a homework problem. For a lot of information on Triceratops that will help you answer these questions, click here.

Q: Was Altispinax related to Megalosaurus
from ?; September 15, 1999

A: Yes, they were both Megalosaurids (for more information on the various dinosaur families, click here).

Q: How much meat could a t rex tear off in one bite ?
from qb, Terrace, B.C., Canada; September 15, 1999

A: About 500 pounds of meat. FOr more interesting information about T. rex, click here.

Q: How fast could velociraptor run?
from Michael D., San Francisco, California, USA; September 14, 1999

A: Velociraptor may have been able to run up to roughly 40 mph (60 km/hr) for short bursts. For more information on Velociraptor, click here.

Q: Where did Microcoelus live
from ?; September 14, 1999

A: Microcoelus lived in what is now South America.

Q: Where did Rileyasuchus live
from ?; September 14, 1999

A: Rileyasuchus fossils have been found in Europe.

Q: Where can I get a list of inchogenus dinosaurs
from ?; September 14, 1999

A: A few dinosaurs known only from ichnofossils (ichnogenera) known only from footprints, tailprints, etc., include:

Q: 1. What does a stegosaurus eat
from ?, Springdale, AR, USA; September 13, 1999

A: Stegosaurus ate low-lying plants, like ferns, smaller club mosses and cycads, horsetails, and bushy conifers. For more informatin on Stegosaurus, click here.

Q: Exactly who were the geosaurs Enemies. Thanks
from Julie, Nederland, TX, USA; September 13, 1999

A: As I said in respond to your last question, Geosaurus was at the top of its local food web; this means that it was the top predator in its locality; as a healthy adult, there were no carnivores who could catch and eat Geosaurus.

Q: What is Prodeinodon
from ?; September 13, 1999

A: Prodeinodon was a therpod from the Cretaceous period. For more information on Prodeinodon, click here.

Q: When is siamosaurus going to be in the dino dictionary?
from ?, Canada; September 13, 1999

A: Right now. Click here for the entry on Siamosaurus.

Q: When did arkanosaurus live and what classifaction does it have
from ?, Canada; September 13, 1999

A: Arkansaurus was a theropod dinosaur that lived during the late Cretaceous period. For more information on Arkansaurus, click here.

Q: Is there such dinosaurs as Dinosaurus(Deinosaurus) and if so when did it and what type of dinosaur was it?
from E, Canada; September 13, 1999

A: Yes, Dinosaurus was a quadrupedal, plant-eating dinosaur that lived during the late Triassic period. It has been renamed Plateosaurus.

Q: What is a Deindon
from rr, ?; September 13, 1999

A: Deinodon (meaning "terrible tooth") was a meat-eating dinosaur from the late Cretaceous period. It is only known from a dozen fossilized teeth found over a hundred years ago in Montana (and some of these teeth probably belonged to another dinosaur). For more information on Deinodon, click here.

Q: Can you give us some information on the Muttabrrasauras reproduction?
from Clowy, ?; September 13, 1999

A: No one knows much dinosaur reproduction, except that they hatched from eggs, and some dinosuars (like Maiasaura) cared for their young. For some information on Muttaburrasaurus, click here.

Q: How big is a tyrannosaurus head?
from Regan, Dargaville, New Zealand; September 13, 1999

A: T. rex's jaws were up to 4 feet (1.2 m) long. For more inforamtion on T. rex, click here.

Q: Is it true that the Pinacosaurs dinosaur had three nostrils, or is this a dinosaur myth? I think this sounds very unlikely.
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; September 13, 1999

A: Pinacosaurus had two flared nostrils. For more information on Pinacosaurus, click here.

Q: what is a fish dinosaur
from paul w, lincoln, lincolnshire, England; September 13, 1999

A: I've never heard of a fish dinosaur, but the Ichthyosaurs (meaning "fish lizards") were reptiles that lived in the seas during the time of the dinosaurs. For more information on Ichthyosaurs, click here.

Q: did north america rise above sea level
from zac h., peachtree city, ga, USA; September 12, 1999

A: North American is part of a continental plate (the North American Plate), which is mostly above sea level. The level of the land goes up and down as a function of tectonic activity and the actual sea level (which changes as polar ice freezes or melts). During the time of the dinosaurs, parts of North America were underwater for some time (see the illustration below). For a lot more information on the continental plates, click here.
Continental Drift
Forward Backward

Q: where did people find 80 million dinosaur eggs in 1998?
from kim o., marion heights, pa, USA; September 12, 1999

A: It wasn't quite that many. Thousands of fossilized dinosaur eggs were found in the province of Neuquen in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina in 1998. For more information on that amazing find, click here.

Q: Why is looking at dinosaur bone fossils not an observation?
from Estelle; September 12, 1999

A: I'm not sure what you mean, could you please explain?

Q: What was the first dromaeosaurid?
from James t, New York City, New York, USA; September 12, 1999

A: Utahraptor is the earliest-known dromaeosaurid. For more information on Utahraptor, click here. For more information on dromaeosaurids, click here.

Q: What does a Geosaurus eat? Did it live in water all the time and what where their enemies?
from J. Kimball, Nederland, TX, USA; September 12, 1999

A: Their diet was mostly fish and they spent their entire lives in the water. They were at the top of their local food web. For more information on Geosaurus, click here.

Q: Which was the smallest dinosaur and which was the first on earth?
from Mel F., CA, USA; September 10, 1999

A: The smallest-known dinosaur is the meat-eater Compsognathus (For more information on Compsognathus, click here.) The earliest-known dinosaur is Eoraptor (For more information on Eoraptor, click here.)

Q: What kinds of dinosaurs lives in Ottawa, Canada? Please send info on some of them. thanx
from Magan M., Nepean, Ontario, Canada; September 10, 1999

A: Lots of dinosaurs have been found in Canada. Most were found in Alberta, but some have been found in Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, and British Columbia. I haven't heard of any dinosaurs found in Ontario. For more information on Canadian dinosaur fossils, click here.

Q: hello,my questions are, why isn`t the saurischian theropod megaraptor a dromaeosaurid?and is megaraptor a coelurosaur?or does megaraptor shair more incommon with carnosaurs? if megaraptor isn`t a dromaeosaurid is it a saurornithoidid? thanks, michael in california
from michael r, napa valley, california, USA; September 9, 1999

A: Megaraptor had a slightly different foot structure than the Dromaeosaurids (the true raptors) which had wider feet than Megaraptor (which was a coelurosaur). For more information on Megaraptor, click here.

Q: Are you good at math??
from Jimmy L., Georgia, USA; September 9, 1999

A: Yes, but why do you want to know?

Q: What is the oviraptors height?
from NAME, CITYSTATE, USA; September 9, 1999

A: Oviraptor was about 6 ft (2 m) tall when standing with its head upright. For more information on Oviraptor, click here.

Q: how much does a saltopus weigh?
from NAME, CITYSTATE, USA; September 9, 1999

A: Saltopus weighed roughly 2 pounds (1 kg). For more information on Saltopus, click here.

Q: how big are allosaurus feet
from ?; September 9, 1999

A: They would have left footprints about 30-35 cm long, but dinosaurs walked on their toes (they were digitigrade), so their feet were actually a lot bigger than this. For more information on Allosaurus, click here.

Q: What does the word sauros mean?
from ?; September 9, 1999

A: It means "lizard" in Greek.

Q: How many spines did the Stegasaurus have on it's back?
from Zen K., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; September 8, 1999

A: Stegosaurus had 17 bony plates that were embedded in its back. Stegosaurus also had tail spikes at the end of its flexible tail. These spikes were up to four feet long and were used for protection from predators. Different species of Stegosaurus had different numbers of tail spikes; Stegosaurus ungulatis had 8 spikes and Stegosaurus stenops had 4 spikes. For more information on Stegosaurus, click here.

Q: Do sharks sleep?
from Wesley, MO, USA; September 10, 1999

A: Fish don't sleep in the same way that we do, but they have active and inactive periods. Some sharks (like the nurse shark) have been observed resting motionless on the sea floor. Others have to keep moving in order to breathe. For more informatio on sharks, click here to go to Zoom Sharks.

Q: where and when was the first dinosaur skeleton found in North America?
from ?, Los Altos, CA, USA; September 7, 1999

A: New Jersey in 1787. For more informatio on the first American dinosaurs found, click here and scroll down.

Q: what is the new name for the brontasaurus? what is the dfferents between the brontosaurus, apatosaurus and the brachiosaurus?
from missy r, ashfield, ma, USA; September 7, 1999

A: The new name for Brontosaurus is Apatosaurus - for more information on Apatosaurus, click here. Brachiosaurus was quite different from Apatosaurus; its biggest obvious difference was that Brachiosaurus had a giraffe-like stance, holding its head and neck upright. For more information on Brachiosaurus, click here.

Q: please help ! What is a Placodus?
from anne g., sydney, n.s.w., Australia; September 7, 1999

A: I've added Placodus (a placodont, a marine reptile) to the Zoom Dinosaurs dictionary, at: /subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/indexp.shtml#Placodus

Q: What is the largest carnosaur?
from Prince L., fl, al, USA; September 10, 1999

A: Giganotosaurus. For more information on Giganotosaurus, click here. For more information on carnosaurs, click here.

Q: what aspects of the skeleton, muscles or organ systems of dinosaur species could lead to mass results being overestimated or underestimated
from lj, Aukland, New Zealand; September 5, 1999

A: Very few fossilized muscles or orans have been found (Scipionyx is the only known theropod with fossilized organs), so these aren't really used in mass estimates. Mass is estimated mostly on the basis of the dinosaur's size (which is known from the fossilized bones) and its density (which is estimated, based on modern-day reptiles). This density estimate is the major problem in mass estimations, and must have varied greatly among the dinosaurs, especially since some has light-weight, hollow bones, and others had solid bones ( and some were in between). Also, some dinosaurs may have had horns encasing various bony bosses, spikes and claws (horn doesn't fossilize well and would be ignored in mass calculations). Many other quantities affect mass estimates, including the animals' musculature (mostly unknown), fat stores (also unknown), etc.

Q: Why do some dinosarus eat meat?
from tiey .A, Desert Hot Springs, CA, USA; September 5, 1999

A: The theropod dinosaurs ate meat for the same reasons that modern-day meat-eating animals eat meat - they evolved that way. A carnivore's entire body is designed to eat meat - eveything from their claws and teeth (which they used to catch and tear apart meat), their acute senses (which are used to hunt meat), their ability to move fast (to catch meat), and their digestive systems (which digest meat well, but cannot digest most plant materials) are all geared towards this one end. The same applied to the meat-eating dinosaurs. For more information on dinosaurs' diets, click here.

Q: How do you pronounce the dinosaur's name: Coelophysis?
from Kim H., Greensboro, NC, USA; September 5, 1999

A: pronounced SEE-low-FIE-sis. FOr more information on Coelophysis, click here.

Q: was a dinosaur fossil ever found in illiois?
from Ryan E., IL, USA; September 3, 1999

A: Not that I've heard of. For a list of the dinosaurs found state by state, click here.

Q: what kind of dinosaur is the one called a "spitter" in the movie jarasic park?
from Chris F., muskego, WI, USA; September 2, 1999

A: Dilophosaurus, but there is no evidence that it actually did spit poison.

Q: Did the Dinosaurs lived in every part of the world? What really caused their extinction?
from JoAnn M., Lewisville, Texas, USA; September 2, 1999

A: Dinosaurs have been found on every continent, including antarctica (which wasn't at the south pole during the Mesozoic Era). For information on the extinction on the dinosaurs, see the faq above.

Q: I need more information and specialy pictures about any dinosaur that might have lived during the triassic period.
from Sara C., Santiago, region mediterranea, Chile; September 1, 1999

A: For a list of Triassic period dinosaurs, click here. For further information on those dinosaurs, click on the links. Eoraptor is the earliest-known dinosaur, from the mid-Triassic period.

Q: Is there a dinosaur called aerodactyl or terradectyl
from Kat G., NY,, USA; September 1, 1999

A: Pterodactyls were flying reptiles that lived during the time of the dinosaurs. For more information on Pterodactyls, click here.

Q: what are the five most dangerous sharks in the world?
from G.T., singapore, singapore; September 1, 1999

A: Based on the number of attacks on people, the most dangerous sharks are the Tiger shark, bull shark, Great white shark, the oceanic whitetip shark.

Q: If a Tyrannosaurus got into a fight with a Triceratops, which dinosaur would win? I think we have all wanted to know this for a long time.
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; September 1, 1999

A: I would bet on T. rex. A T. rex coprolite (fossilized dung) was recently found and it contained crushed Triceratops frill bone, so we know that T. rex ate Triceratops. It's unknown whether the T. rex killed the Triceratops or simply scavenged an already-dead Triceratops.

For more information on T. rex, click here. For more information on Triceratops, click here.

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