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Questions from October 1999

Q: What are 4 plant-eating dinosaurs? Also, name 3 paleontologists and what they discovered, please. I am 11 years old.
from Ashlee C., Taylors, South Carolina, USA; October 31, 1999

A: Some plant-eating dinosaurs included Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Triceratops, Stegosaurus; for more plant-eaters, click here. For a list of paleontologists and their discoveries, click here.

Q: Im doing a research paper on marine dinosaurs and i havent been able to find sufficient information on them.can u tell me howw many different species,and some general information on anything u know about any kind of marine dinoasurs.
from blue, miami, fl, USA; October 31, 1999

A: For information on the number of different genera, see the faq above. Thre were no marine dinosaurs, but Plesiosaurs, Ichthyosaurs, Nothosaurs, and other marine reptiles lived during the time of the dinosaurs. For information sheets on many dinosaurs, click here.

Q: I am 4 years old - 5 in June 2000 - how do I become a Paleontologist? My Mummy and Daddy say I live, breathe and eat dinosaurs!
from Jack, Aberdeenshire, Scotland; October 31, 1999

A: For a start, just keep learning about dinosaurs, other fossils, and living animals. The living animals will tell you a lot about how the dinosaurs may have lived. When you're older, you can read about biology, geology and math.

Q: what do t-rex & giganotosaurus eat like what knds of animals
from Cassie C., Kingsville. MO, USA; October 30, 1999

A: The large meat-eating dinosaurs probably ate medium-size plant-eating dinosaurs, like duck-bills and ceratopsians. A T. rex coprolite (fossilized dung) was found containing crushed Triceratops frill bone. To find which particular dinosaurs lived with T. rex, click here and go the section on North America. For dinos that lived with Giganotosaurus, click here and scroll to the secion on South America. For more information on Giganotosaurus, click here.

Q: how many years do it take to make a decade
from tyrone c, severn, md, USA; October 30, 1999

A: There are 10 years in a decade.

from KYLE T., CHATAN CHO, OKINAWA, JAPAN; October 30, 1999

A: "Hironosaurus,", Kagasaurus, "Katsuyamasaurus," "Kitadanisaurus," Nipponosaurus, Wakinosaurus, and Elasmosaurus (a plesiosaur) were found in Japan. I don't have a list of dinosaurs from Okinawa. If anyone knows a reference to one, please let ne know. For more information on dinosaur locations, click here.

Q: According to "THE AGE OF DINOSAURS: A PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD" (Jane Burton, text by Dougal Dixon) a one foot long Archaeopteryx weighed 500 grams, 18 ounces, or a little more than one pound. Is this reasonable?
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; October 29, 1999

A: Yes, it was about the size of a crow and perhaps roughly the same weight.

Q: What scientists proposed the asteroid collision hypothesis?
from ?; October 29, 1999

A: Luis Alvarez and his son Walter Alvarez. For more information on the Alvarex Asteroid Theory. click here.

Q: what is the archaeptory size in pounds? Whats the length of the archaeptery in feet?
from tara h., phoenix, az, USA; October 28, 1999

A: Archaeopteryx was about 1 foot long from beak to tail. I've never seen a good weight estimate for it. For more information on Archaeopteryx, click here.

Q: how much does a lexovisaurus weigh? look like? pronounciation of name?
from a.m., phoenix, az, USA; October 28, 1999

A: Lexovisaurus (pronounced lek-SOH-vee-SAWR-us) weighed about 2000 kg. For more information on Lexovisaurus, click here.

Q: How did the dinosaurs reproduce?
from Bernie V., Salinas, CA, USA; October 28, 1999

A: No one knows. Most of what we know about dinosaurs comes from fossil evidence, and all that the fossils tell us so far, is that most dinosaurs were oviparous (egg-layers).

Q: How many bones are in a fossil?
from Maria C., PA, USA; October 27, 1999

A: It varies from specimen to specimen. Most vertebrates have about 200 or so bones, but most fossils are incomplete (many of their bones are never found - either they didn't fossilize or just weren't found).

Q: All of the books say that Brachiosaurs could not rear up on their hind legs to feed, so why does the one in Jurassic Park do exactly that?
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; October 27, 1999

A: They took a lot of factual liberties in Jurassic Park. They changed the sizes of some, gave some the ability to spit poison, and made some a lot smarter than they probably were.

Q: do all dinosaurs have hollow bones?
from ashley c; October 27, 1999

A: No, many did not.

Q: What role did Alexander Wetmore play in paleontology? He studied birds? Why is he important or is he? His name is not on your list. Thanks
from Nan D, Miami, FL, USA; October 26, 1999

A: I'll add him to the list. Alexander Wetmore (1886-1978) was an ornithologist who was an expert on the birds and bird fossils of Central and South America. He named many species of fossil birds, including Plegadornis, 1962 (now Angelinornis). He was put in charge of the National Museum (the Smithsonian), the National Gallery of Art, and the National Zoo in 1925. He collected a lot of birds (which were stuffed for the Smithsonian's collection) and fossils. In addition to his field work and administrative duties, he was famous for being extremely formal. While in the rainforests collecting specimens, he would always wear a tie, and he insisted that the tents, chairs and tables were always arranged perfectly in a particular linear fashion. The Cretaceous Period fossil bird Alexornis (meaning "Alex's bird") was named by Pierce Brodkorb in 1976 in honor of Wetmore.

Q: Are Pterodactyls known to have, on occasion, eaten their young?
from Shel S., West Palm Beach, FL, USA; October 26, 1999

A: I've never heard of any fossil evidence supporting this for Pterodactyls. Fossil evidence that would indicate this kind of cannibalism would include Pterodactly coprolites (fossilized dung) containing bones of the young, or fossils found with bones inside the stomach area. FOr more information on Pterodactyls, click here.

Q: Where can i find a lot of information on the Pteranodon flying reptile???
from Christina L., NEW FAIRFIELD, CT, USA; October 26, 1999

A: For an information sheet on Pteranodon, click here.

Q: At what year did dinosaurs live?
from oddny B, Kópavogur, Island; October 26, 1999

A: Dinosaurs lived for millions of years during the Mesozoic Era, from about 230 million years until 65 million years ago..

Q: Is a Rhino a dinosaur?
from Soon L., Columbia, SC, USA; October 26, 1999

A: No, the rhino is mammal.

Q: How do they know how old a dinasour is when they find it?
from Tony G. Troy, OH, USA; October 25, 1999

A: Scientists use radioisotope dating to date the volcanic layers immediately above (younger than) and below (older than) the fossil. This determines the range within which the fossil lived. For more information on dating fossils, click here.

Q: My teacher assigned this really in-depth dinosaur project t,and part of it is to make a paper mache out of my dino that I picked. I don't know where to begin, but I do know about paper mache. My dino is from the pterodactyloids Can you give me any suggestions?????????? I'm in the 4th grade
from Emerald M., Carbondale, IL, USA; October 24, 1999

A: For some drawings of pterodactyloids, click here. The easiest way to make one might be to make the wings (+body) from a large piece of cardboard, then use papier mache over wadded-up newspaper to form the body. After it dries, you can paint it. If you need a papier-mache recipe (flour/water paste), click here.

Q: What is the most severe potentially lethal problem presented by raising a dinosaur in an open nest?
from Stephanie C., West Lafayette, Indiana, USA; October 25, 1999

A: Predators eating the hatchlings.

Q: The vertebrae of sauropods have a feature referred to as a pleurocoel. What is the purpose of the pleurocoel?
from Meghan F, West Lafayette, IN, USA; October 24, 1999

A: Pleurocoels are openings in the sides of the vertebrae of some large theropod dinosaurs (like T. rex). These opening decrease the weight of the bone. They may have also been used for other purposes, such as an air-sac system that is used by modern birds in which the vertebrae contain a series of air-sacs which are connected to the lungs

Q: What did Ingenia eat?
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; October 24, 1999

A: It was a small theropod with a toothless beak. It was a meat-eater, but may have also eaten insects and eggs.

Q: What happened to the Earth's atmosphere the day of and days after the asteroid hit the planet, destroying the Dinosaurs?
from Beth B, Sandwich, IL, USA; October 23, 1999

A: For information on the possible effects of the K-T asteroid hit, click here.

Q: Did the males or females lay the eggs?
from MG, Panama City, Florida, USA; October 23, 1999

A: By definition, the female produces eggs.

Q: Question
from Jim K., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; October 22, 1999

A: I have a list of dinosaur fossil locations at: /subjects/dinosaurs/dinofossils/locations/. I don't know of any other sites with this information, which is why I put them up.

Q: can you tell me the species of Grallator,Eubrontes and Gigantosaurip ?
from Stan, ?; October 22, 1999

A: Thre are many species of the ichnogenera Grallator and Eubrontes, including: Grallator parallelum, Eubrontes giganteus. I don't about Gigantosauripus.

Q: How many fossils of dinosaurs have been found in Alberta alone???OILERS RULE!
from Marquess, Canada; October 21, 1999

A: For fossils found in Alberta (and other Canadian provinces), click here. Most dinosaurs (especially the larger ones) probably had a large territory that they lived in - big dinos would need a large areas in which to gather food. Even if a dinosuar fossil is found in only one location, it doesn't mean that it only lived in that locality.

Q: I'm in grade 9 and I have to do a report on the Woolly Mammoth and I can't find an adaptations of it anywhere other then its big furry coat and small ears to keep it warm. What are some other adaptations like its feet or something or eyesight?
from Hayley. K, Edmonton, AB, Canada; October 21, 1999

A: Almost every aspect of an animal's physiology and behavior is an adaptation to something. In the case of the Woolly Mammoth, I'm assuming that you mean adaptations to the cold weather during the ice ages. One adaptations to the cold was its long tusks, which it used to dig for food through snow. Also, its eats were pretty big, but covered with hair to insulate them. Its large size was also an adaptation, since when an animal minimizes its surface area with resepect to its volume, it retains its heat better - this is called gigantothermy (many other ice age mammals were large for the same reason). For more information on the Woolly Mammoth, clcik here.

Q: what kind of reproduction does the pteradactlyus have. can i have some info on the reproduction.
from pteradactlyus dinosaur, coral spring, fl, USA; October 21, 1999

A: They probably laid eggs. Other than that, nothing is known about how they reproduced.

Q: Does how deep a fossils is found tell you how old it is?
from jamie m, elkins, west virginia, USA; October 21, 1999

A: Deep fossils are generally older. This type of fossil dating is called stratigraphy. For more information of fossils dating, click here.

Q: I am doing a science assignment and for four dinosaurs which move in a similar manner (i.e t-rex and a velociraptor) I have to determine the likely maximine speed by finding out the length of their leg from top of the femur to the tarsals. Can you please help me?
from Thomas H., Tweed Heads, New South Wales, Ausrtalia; October 21, 1999

A: T. rex has a leg length of about 3.5 m, Allosaurus's leg was about 1.65 m, and Dilophosaurus' was about 2.7 m long.

Q: why was the term "Dinosaur" used after 1870
from Carmella M., NJ, USA; October 21, 1999

A: The term dinosaur was invented in 1842. For more information, click here.

Q: How tall was Ultrasaus
from Joshua B., Windsor Locks, Conneicut, USA; October 20, 1999

A: Ultrasauros was about 52 feet (15 m) tall. For more information on Ultrasauros, click here.

Q: what did the diplodocus eat?
from ?; October 20, 1999

A: Diplodocus was a plant-eater. It's mainstay may have been conifers. For more information on Diplodocus, click here.

Q: How much meat can a T-rex take in one bite
from ?; October 20, 1999

A: About 500 pounds of meat. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: how many tons did homalocephale weigh?
from garrett c, blessing, tx, USA; October 20, 1999

A: Homalocephale was an herbivore (a plant-eater) about 5 feet (1.5 m) long and weighed only about 95 pounds (43 kg). For more information on Homalocephale, click here.

Q: In the list of dinosaurs, if the names with an asterisk next to them aren't dinosaurs then what the heck are they?
from Rob m, Kingston Upon Hull, Yorkshire, England; October 20, 1999

A: Many different types of animals, including pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, turtles, etc. Almost all are listed in the Dinosaur and Paleontology Dictionary. If some are missing, let me know and I'll add them.

Q: what is the length of a t-rexes, a veloci raptor, and other dinosaurs who move on their back legs leg? (femur to the tarsals.) what is the length of these dinosaurs stride?
from tom h, tweed heads, n.s.w., australia; October 20, 1999

A: T. rex's legs were about 3.5 m long (femur 130 cm, tibia slightly longer). Stride length = 1.76m. Velociraptor's femur is 20 cm long (but I can't find the leg length or stride length).

Q: What types of animals might be related to the Riojasaurus dinosaur ?
from Bill T. Athens, GA, USA; October 19, 1999

A: Close relatives of this prosauropod (primitive plant-eating dinosuars) include: Anchisaurus, Azendohsaurus, Thecodontosaurus, and Halticosaurus. For more information on Riojasaurus, click here.

Q: Dr.Ostroms bird-dinosaur hypothesis, and Gauthiers cladistic analysis of skeletal morphology. Leads to the understanding that Archaeopteryx is a Maniraptoran Coelurosaur. Most closely related to Dromaeosaurids, (Theropod Dinosaurs). and that Dromaeosauridae and Acrhaeopteryx shair a common ancestor. Can you recommend some good reading material about Archosaurian,Ornithodira????
from Rich, San Francisco, CA, USA; October 19, 1999

A: It sounds as though you've already done a LOT of reading on this topic. I highly reccommend The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs by D.E. Fastovsky and D.B. Weishampel and The Complete Dinosaur edited by J.O.Farlow and M.K.Brett-Surman. They both have information on archosaurs and ornithodira and are excellent books that I use all the time. You also might enjoy the Dinosaur Mailing List.

Q: My intrest is on the newly discoverd dinosaur the Utharaptor and i cant find any websites for this particular dinosaur any info for me?
from Concerned, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa; October 19, 1999

A: For information on Utahraptor, click here

Q: What does the word sauros mean?
from Katee E., garrett c., Blessing, TX, USA; October 19, 1999

A: It means lizard in Greek. For more information on the word dinosaur, click here.

Q: I am doing a geometry progect on dinasour tracks. I was wondering what math is envolved when they find the tracks. Do they have to use equations to find how old the track is or information about it. How could finding a dinasour track be geometric? There has to be math involved, what math is envolved during the process of uncovering a dinasour track?
from Kim S., Park City, Utah, USA; October 26, 1999

A: Dating the tracks is done the same way other fossils are found. THe volcanic ash layers above (later in time) and below (earlier in time) are dater using radio-isotope dating. Math is used in calculating how big the dinosaur was from its foot size and its stride length (the length between footsteps). Also, the dinosaur's speed can be calculated.

Q: How does the Diplodocus breathe?
from ?; October 18, 1999

A: Diplodocus, like all dinosaurs, breathed using lungs.

Q: We are learning all about dinosaurs in class and I was wanting to know as much information about the dinosaurs that lived in Australia?
from Cheryl B., Yarrabah, Cairns, Queensland, Australia; October 17, 1999

A: For a page on Australian dinosaurs, click here. When you're there, click on the individual dinosaurs to go to information about them.

Q: What dinosaur lived in Washington?
from Andrew V., Lynnwood, Washinton, USA; October 17, 1999

A: None have been found. For a list of where dinosaurs have been found, click here.

Q: how do you make a fossil?
from kaila f, henderson, texas, USA; October 17, 1999

A: You don't. They form naturally over a long period of time. Formore information on how fossils are formed, click here.

Q: Where can I find more information about Grallator?
from Oskar P., albuquerque, nm, USA; October 17, 1999

A: For information on Grallator, click here. Very little is known about this dinosaur, since all that are known are fossilized tracks.

Q: What is the name of the most recently discovered bird-like dinosaur with feathers?
from Saul E., Lantana, FL, USA; October 16, 1999

A: Archaeoraptor, which means "Ancient robber." For more information on Archaeoraptor, click here.

Q: i want to know the highest dinosaurs ?
from Hugo P., sao paulo, sao paulo, Brazil; October 16, 1999

A: The brachiosaurid sauropods (like Ultrasauros, Brachiosaurus, and Supersaurus) were the tallest. For more information on extreme dinosaurs, click here.

Q: I collect fossils and I recently purchased a tooth from the "paleocharcharodon" a reptile that inhabited water.It is extremly rare and I can't seem to find info about the dinosaur anywhere.What can you tell me about them?
from Tony I., Bothell, WA, USA; October 16, 1999

A: It may be a tooth of Carcharodon (also called Carcharocles) megalodon, a huge, ancient shark that lived from 25 to 1.6 million years ago. For more information on Carcharodon/Carcharocles megalodon, click here.

Q: my question is about a new discovery of the theropod, archaeoraptor. has it been classified into a family? groups,ect? perhaps it`s in a new class of it own? which dinosaurs were it`s relatives or closely related? or is it known?also do you belive that archaeoraptor was endothermic(warm-blooded) like birds? thanks
from Michael R, NAPA VALLEY, CA, USA; October 15, 1999

A: I haven't seen any mention of its classification beyond being a theropod. No formal description has been published yet. For some information on Archaeoraptor, click here.

Q: who invented the term dinosaur?
from Sadie M.B.V.V, Lansing, MI, USA; October 15, 1999

A: Richard Owen invented the term. For more information, click here.

Q: I looked everywhere and cannot find out where the Elasmosaurus was found! Could you please tell me? Thank you.
from L. C., USA; October 14, 1999

A: Elasmosaurus was found in Wyoming, USA. For more information on Elasmosaurus, click here.

Q: Please help me with this: What were the Brachiosaurus enemies and what was there protection. Thank You
from michelle B, Zion, IL, USA; October 14, 1999

A: Brachiosaurus' main protection was its giant size. Ceratosaurus was the largest meat-eater of its time, it was 15 to 20 feet long (4.5 to 6 m) long, half the size of Brachiosaurus - no one knows if it was capable of killing a fully-grown Brachiosaurus. Other meat-eaters of its time weren't nearly big enough to kill an adult Brachiosaurus. For more information on Brachiosaurus, click here.

Q: I don't have the time to look but what do the real diosaurs looks like and what were some other plants and animals only in the Tirassic.
from Nikki Z., Gretna, Nebraska, USA; October 14, 1999

A: For other dinosaurs that lived during the Triassic, click here. For other plants that lived during the Triassic, click here.

Q: where can i find out how high and what subgroup the diplocuaurs?(i might have th anem spelled wron but he lived in the jarasic period and he had the bracheasuars as a cusin.)
from cloud s., seattle, wa, USA; October 14, 1999

A: For information on Diplodocus, click here.

Q: do you know if great white sharks are in the nekton group????
from sl, s. yarm, ma, USA; October 14, 1999

A: Yes, they are. Nektonic (nektos is Greek for "swimming") animals are those marine creatures that are able to swim against the current. Sharks and rays are nectonic.

Q: what is the birth weight of the allosaur? What is the average weight of a six month old? Who are their enemies? What is the avarage life span?
from Natalie T., New York, NY, USA; October 14, 1999

A: Adult Allosaurus had no predators - it was the biggest meat-eater during the late-Jurassic period in North America. I've never heard of an Allosaurus hatchling being found. No one knows how long they lived or how big they were at six months of age. For more information on Allosaurus, click here.

Q: How much can a T REX take in one bite.
from David C., fairmont, west virginia; October 14, 1999

A: See this page on T. rex.

Q: what is the size of the quetzalcoatlus?
from ?; October 14, 1999

A: For more information on Quetzalcoatlus, click here.

Q: I'm doing a school report on the dromaesaurus and I need to Know
a)What class are they in?
b)What family are they in, Dromaesaurid or dromaesauridae?
C)What type of species are they? Thank you

from Tamara M., Middleton, ID, USA; October 13, 1999

A: a) Class Archosauria b) a dromaeosaurid is a member of the family Dromaeosauridae c) The type species is D. albertensis. For more information on Dromaeosaurus, click here.

Q: Where does the Diplodocus live?
from Ashley M., West Sac., CA; October 13, 1999

A: Diplodocus fossil have been found in in the western US, including Wyoming, Colorado, Montana, and Utah. For more information on Diplodocus, click here.

from Robin F., California, PA, USA; October 13, 1999

A: For a page on dinosaur defenses, click here.

Q: How big of a bite can a T-Rex take?
from Stephanie M, Bloomville, OH, USA; October 13, 1999

A: T. rex could eat about 500 pounds (230 kg) of meat and bones in each bite. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: What was the longest dinosaur,the largest,and the smallest adult dinosaur. What were their lenth,heighth,and weight. Were they biped or quadruped and were they herbivore,carnivores,or omnivores.
from CB; October 13, 1999

A: The smallest was Compsognathus, a meat-eating biped. For details on Compsognathus, click here. For the largest dinos, click here.

Q: Who thought up the name T-rex ?
from Alyssa D., gradprarie, USA; October 13, 1999

A: T.yrannosaurus rex was named by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1905. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: My teacher said there are at least 2 causes for the extinction of the dinosaurs. I know one is the impact of a comet or asteroid. What is the other cause?
from Diane. Phila, PA, USA; October 13, 1999

A: For the other extinction theories, click here.

Q: how much does the biggest dinosaurs weigh??
from as, aberdeen, USA; October 12, 1999

A: The biggest sauropods weighed perhaps over 150 tons (150,000 kg). Click here for more information on these giants.

Q: where can i get infomation on the dinichtys?
from Eric V., fort worth, tx, USA; October 12, 1999

A: For information on the extinct cat Dinicitis, click here.

Q: who found the first fossil
from Kareena, launceston, Tasmania, Australia; October 12, 1999

A: See this page.

Q: How are dinos classified according to their bone structures?
from Tom, Phil, PA, USA; October 12, 1999

A: Dinosaurs are divided into two major groups, the Saurischians and the Ornithischians. The main difference between these groups is their hip structure. For more information on these groups, click here.

Q: What time period did Utahraptor live in?
from Christine, Elkton, MD, USA; October 12, 1999

A: Utahraptor lived during the early Cretaceous period, about 125 million year ago. For more information on Utahraptor, click here.

from John G., Edison, NJ, USA; October 12, 1999

A: Animals can adapt by moving to warmer areas, finding protected areas (like burrows) in which to over-winter. Over time, species change from this type of pressure, favoring longer fur, thicker fat layers, more efficient metabolisms, etc. People adapt by inventing and using things that help them live in the cold (like insulating clothes, warm shelter, crops that are cold-resistant) and also by trying to change the Earth's clmiate (like banning chloro-fluorocarbons).

Q: Hi I'm a sophomore at Butler University in B104 (dinosaur evolution) and need some help on finding controversies pertaining to ankylosaurs'. thank you
from Nick B, Indianapolis, IN, USA; October 11, 1999

A: An indeterminate North American nodosaur with hollow ribs was found a few years ago by Walter P. Coombs, Jr. Also, the fossils were found in marine sediment. These hollows are a matter of dispute - first, were they hollow on the living dinosaur (the hollows may simply be an artifact of scavengers around the time of death), and second, if they were hollow on the dinosaur, why were they hollow? If they were a real feature of the dinosaur, the hollow bones may have lightened the ankylosaur's body enough so that it could float (Coombs discounted this possibility).

Another new and odd ankylosaur finding related to new footprints found in Bolivia recently by Rodolfo Coria. They indicated a much faster gait (about 7 mph) than was previously assumed possible.

Q: what are fossils and why are they so important?
from ?; October 11, 1999

A: For information on what fossils are, click here. They're important and useful because they give us a lot of information about extinct life forms and a glimpse into the Earth's past.

Q: what does megalosaurus like? what did it eat? which period did it live in? what does it mean? and does it kill other theropods?
from axel c, sydney, nsw, australia, USA; October 11, 1999

A: For information on Megalosaurus, click here. Its diet is unknown, but you can find which dinosaurs lived with it in what is now Europe during the early Cretaceous period by clicking here and looking at the section on Europe.

Q: what do you think happened to the dinosaurs?
from Kailey G, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; October 11, 1999

A: Most died out during the Mesozoic Era (in background extinctions and small extinctions) and a great many went extinct 65 million years ago during the huge K-T extinction (probably caused by an asteroid hitting hte Earth). The birds are the remaining dinosaurs.

Q: I need a picture of Deinocheirus,but I can't find it.Where can I find one?
from Adam M., Boca Raton, FL, USA; October 10, 1999

A: No one knows what it looks like because the arms have been found. F0r more information on Deinocheirus, click here.

Q: did dinosaurs only live on land?
from skye c., Kumbia, Queensland, Australia and Zoe D., Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; October 10, 1999

A: Yes. During the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs lived, the Pterosaurs flew and the Plesiosaurs, Nothosaurs, Mosasaurs, and Ichthyosaurs swam.

Q: my question is about the saurischian theropods, the dromaeosaurids. i recently found out that a new dromaeosaurid was found in china. sinorinthosaurus milenii. and it was covered with proto-feathers (downy fibers) have other dromeaosaurids been found with these fibers? outside of china? if so where? thanks, din0sauria
from Michael R, NAPA VALLEY, CALIFORNIA, USA; October 10, 1999

A: This new discovery, Sinornithosaurus, was the first proto-feathered dromaeosaurid found (for more information on Sinornithosaurus, click here). Many other feathered dinosaurs have been found, but never dromaeosaurs.

Q: what is a dimetrodon's habitat
from Danielle L, Coral Springs, FL, USA; October 10, 1999

A: It lived in swampy areas. FOr more information on Dimetrodon, click here.

Q: what criteria help the paleontologists decide if a dinosaur was carnivores or herbivores
from tommy f, livingston, texas, USA; October 10, 1999

A: The type of teeth and jaw size are primary, but there are other considerations. For more information, click here.

Q: What do all dinosaurs have in common?
from TN, Sydney, NSW, Australia; October 10, 1999

A: For a page on what makes a dinosaur a dinosaur, click here.

Q: Has Dr. Dong Zhiming scientifically described the unofficial (last I heard) sauropod "Nurosaurus" (said to have resembled Mamenchisaurus)?
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada; October 9, 1999

A: As far as I know Nurosaurus is still undescribed.

Q: How many different dinosaurs were there in the late Cretaceous?
from Soren R., Slinger, WI, USA; October 9, 1999

A: Most of the known dinosaurs date form the late Cretaceous period. For a list of most of the late Cretaceous dinosaurs, click here

Q: Whear are Dino's located at.
from J.G., Reeds Spring, Missouri, USA; October 8, 1999

A: Dinosaurs have been found on every continent on earth. For a list of where the dinosaurs have been found, click here.

Q: Do you know any web sites about how coal is formed?
from HD, Melbourne, ACT, Australia; October 8, 1999

A: See the entry on coal in the Paleo Dictionary

Q: Are lizards dnosaurs?
from NG, NSW, Australia; October 8, 1999

A: No, but they are both reptiles.

Q: Is a crocodile a dinosaur?
from TN, Sydney, NSW, Australia; October 8, 1999

A: No, but they are both reptiles.

Q: How long ago did the iguanodon live?
from Taylor M., Watertown, USA; October 8, 1999

A: Iguanodon lived during the early Cretaceous period, about 135-125 million years ago. For more information on Iguanodon, click here.

Q: What are the main distinguishing features of a dinosaur? Oh, if you answer it thank you!
from TN, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia; October 7, 1999

A: See this page.

Q: What dinosaurs were unique to Australia?
from TN, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia; October 7, 1999

A: For a page on Australian dinosaurs, click here. Most of the dinosaurs on the list are unique to Australia except Allosaurus.

Q: Are any dinosaurs still alive today?OR decendents of dinosaurs??
from TN, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia; October 7, 1999

A: The birds are probably the descendants of the dinosaurs..

Q: Which time period was the Tarbosaurus dinasour living?
from Benjamin C., Wausau, WI, USA; October 7, 1999

A: Tarbosaurus is an invalid name for Tyrannosaurus bataar or T. efremovi, Asian theropods smaller than Tyrannosaurus rex. It lived during the late Cretaceous period, about 85-65 million years ago. For more information on T. rex (Tarbosaurus), click here.

Q: How did the theropod Dryptosaurs move? Did it hop like a kangaroo (which would have been really cool!) or did it run like most other dinosaurs? Also, which dinosaurs were its closest relatives?
from Brad M., Woodville, Ontario, Canada, USA; October 7, 1999

A: Dryptosaurus may have been able to run and leap. Paleontologist Edward D. Cope first thought it was sedentary, but late in his life changed his vision of Dryptosaurus to an active, leaping predator. Its was very similar to Deltadromaeus and probably closely realted to it . For more information on Dryptosaurus, click here.

Q: Lexovisaurus?
from ?; October 7, 1999

A: For information on Lexovisaurus, click here.

Q: I need information on the Veriraptor. Could you post some ? And a picture?
from Jenny M., Richmond, VA, USA; October 7, 1999

A: For information on Variraptor, click here.

Q: Do you have any information on the Veriraptor? Do you have a picture? I need this information as soon asposible because I have a dinosaur report due soon.
from What T., New York, New York, USA; October 7, 1999

A: For information on Variraptor, click here.

Q: Can you give me as much info on platybelodons as you can, PRETTY PLEASE.
from Carey M., England; October 7, 1999

A: For information on Platybelodon, click here.

Q: I am doing a school project. Is there a continent without fossils? My teacher said there is.
from Tommy F, Phila, PA, USA; October 7, 1999

A: No, fossils have been found on every continent. For a list of some of the fossils found on each continent, click here.

Q: How tall is Brachiosaurus?
from ?; October 7, 1999

A: For this and other information on Brachiosaurus, click here.

Q: How did dinosaurs reproduce new dinosaurs?
from Diane, Phila, PA, USA; October 7, 1999

A: They laid eggs. Some paleontologist think that some may have been born live, but most paleontologist think that they laid eggs. For more information, click here.

Q: I am doing an important school science prodject on the Trasic Period. What the heck is it. I realy need help!!!!!!
from Marlee M, Toutle, WA, USA; October 6, 1999

A: The Triassic period was the time period from 248 to 206 million years ago. The first dinosaurs and the first mammals appeared during the Triassic. For a lot more information on the Triassic period, click here.

Q: What present day animal is the closest relative to the dinosaurs?
from Tommy, Phila, Pa, USA; October 6, 1999

A: The birds.

Q: how many teeth does a t-rex have
from ?; October 6, 1999

A: T. rex had 60 teeth. For more inforamtion on T. rex, click here.

Q: What is the reproduction/number of offspring for the Labrosaurus. What is the labrosaurus predator? What are the labrosaurus natural enemies?
from Kristen W.,coral springs, Florida, USA; October 5, 1999

A: Labrosaurus is an invalid name for Allosaurus. No one known about its reproduction rate. For information on Allosaurus, click here.

from ?; October 5, 1999

A: No one knows. Soft tissue, like stomachs, don't fossilize well. Only one dinosuar, Scipionyx, has been found with some fossilized internal organs, but not a stomach. Plus, the different types of dinosaurs probably had different types of stomachs, especially the plant-eaters vs. the meat-eaters.

Q: How do Barosaurus give birth to it's young?
from Lillie M., MN, USA; October 5, 1999

A: Barosaurus probably laid eggs. No one known about its reproduction rate. For more information on Barosaurus, click here.

Q: I would like to know what the smartest dinosaur is and more information about it
from Stephen T., Launceston, Tasmania, Australia; October 5, 1999

A: The troodontids. like Troodon, were probably the smartest. For more inforamtion on Troodon, click here.

Q: what is the youngest dinosaur?
from Jake W.; October 5, 1999

A: Many fossilized newly-hatched dinosaurs have been found. For example, many Maiasaura babies were found in a bonebed in Montana.

Q: How can you tell if a dinosaur is a male or female?
from Caroline M, Manchester, England; October 5, 1999

A: It is virtually impossible to determine whether a dinosaur fossil is male or female. For many animals, the males and females are different in size; sometimes the female is bigger, sometimes the male is bigger. Also, some animals have different displays depending on the sex of the animal (for example, antlers, elongated feather displays, head crests, etc.). For some dinosaurs there are obviously two types of adults, but it is a matter of conjecture which is male and which is female. For more information, click here.

Q: when were dinosaurs discovered
from Idong, Miami, FL, USA; October 4, 1999

A: For a page on the first dinosaur discoveries, click here.

Q: what types of organisms have been found as fossils
from amber l; October 4, 1999

A: Just about everything has been found as a fossil, including plants and animals Hard organisms (those with bones or plating) fossilize more easily than soft ones (like jelly fish or sharks, which have no bones).

Q: Do you have any information about an Ornithosuchus dinosaur?
from Jessica N., Smithtown, NY, USA; October 4, 1999

A: Ornithosuchus was not a dinosaur, but an early crocodilian that lived during the Triassic period (the time when the early dinosaurs lived). For information on Ornithosuchus, click here.

Q: Did any Dinosaurs Swim or fly and if they did which ones?
from A Spiced Girl, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia; October 4, 1999

A: No, but other reptiles that lived while the dinosaurs lived could fly or swim. The Pterosaurs flew and the Plesiosaurs, Nothosaurs, Mosasaurs, and Ichthyosaurs swam.

Q: Why were the dinosaurs a failure? and what was the smartest dinosaur? and what was the deadliest dinosaur?
from Tamsyn B, South Launceston, Tasmania, Australia; October 4, 1999

A: As a species that has only been around for a few hundred thousand years, we humans can't really say that the dinosaurs are a failure. They lived for over 163 million years and probably evolved into the birds. The smartest dinosaurs were probably the Troodontids (like Troodon). The deadliest dinosaurs were probably these and the dromaeosaurs (like Utahraptor and Velociraptor)

Q: What is the most complete dinasour fossil ever found, and what percent was found.
from j.w., phoenix, Arizona, USA; October 4, 1999

A: Essentially complete fossils of many dinosaur genera have been found, including: Anchisaurus, Scutellisaurus, Scelidosaurus, Syntarsus, Massospondylus, Lesothosaurus, Heterodontosaurus, Dilophosaurus, Yunnanosauurs, Lufengosaurus, Shunosauurs, Omeisaurus, Huayangosaurus, Agiliosaurus, Yandusaurus, Ceratosaurus, Allosaurus, Ornitholestes, Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, Stegosaurus, Camptosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Camarasaurus, Compsognathus, Dryosaurus, Kentrosaurus, Dicraeosaurus, Sinraptor, Monolophosaurus, Yangchuanosaurus, Mamenchisaurus, Deinonychus, Tenontosaurus, Sauropelta, Hypsilophodon, Iguanodon, Sinornithoides, Psittacosaurus, Ouranosaurus, Carnotaurus, Amargasaurus, Ornithomimus, Struthiomimus, Dromiceiomimus, Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, Euoplocephalus, Thescelosaurus, Anatotitan, Edmontosaurus, Kritosaurus, Corythosaurus, Hypacrosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Maiasaura, Leptoceratops, Centrosaurus, Styracosaurus, Anchiceratops, Pentaceratops, Triceratops, Saurolophus, Velociraptor, Gallimimus, Tarbosaurus, Pinacosaurus, Protoceratops. (from The Complete Dinosaur, ed. Farlow and Brett-Surman)

Q: Can you add the ankylosaurs Sauroplites and Tarchia to Zoom Dinosaurs? They are both currently accepted genera (I checked) and should be included. Also, how much would a little 1-metre long ceratopsian Bagaceratops have weighed? The only book I've ever read listing its weight says 1000 pounds, an obvious overestimate.
from Brad M., Toronto, Ontario, Canada; October 3, 1999

A: I've added Sauroplites and Tarchia to the dictionary. Bagaceratops weighed roughly 65 pounds (30 kg).

Q: When is the genus and species list going to be done
from ?; October 1, 1999

A: It's not done yet, but there is a list of the major dinosaur families at: /subjects/dinosaurs/dinoclassification/Families.shtml

Q: The utahraptor lived in what period?
from Katie D., Anchorage, Alaska, USA; October 1, 1999

A: Utahraptor lived during the early Cretaceous period, about 125 million years ago. For more information on Utahraptor, click here.

Q: When are you going to put up a cladogram or linnean syle classifaction of dinosaurs
from ?; October 1, 1999

A: We have a cladogram of all of the ornithodira (which includes dinosaurs, lagosuchans, pterosaurs, and birds) at /subjects/dinosaurs/clades/Ornithodira.shtml.

Q: What does Velociraptor's name mean???????
from Joe B., Fairfield, Ohio, USA; October 1, 1999

A: It means "speedy robber." For more information on Velociraptor, click here.

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