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Zoom Dinosaurs
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By Date By Type of Dinosaur General Dino. Qns. Qns. About Other Animals Geological Era Qns.

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Questions from Dec. 2000
Please check the
Top Sixteen Dinosaur Questions
and the
Dino and Paleontology Dictionary first!

What does the word dinosaur mean?
What does saurus mean?,
What does deinos mean?

What color were the dinosaurs?

How (and when) did the dinosaurs go extinct?
How many dinosaurs were there?
What was the biggest dinosaur? What was the smallest dinosaur? Which dinosaur was the largest meat-eater? Were there more plant-eaters or meat-eaters?
How many teeth did T. rex have (and how big were they)? What is the oldest dinosaur ever found? What was the first dinosaur ever found?
Did birds evolve from the dinosaurs?

Were there any flying dinosaurs?

Were there any swimming dinosaurs?
How do you know what the enemies of a dinosaur were? What kind of habitats did the dinosaurs live in?

I enjoy hearing from visitors. You can send your questions and I'll answer them as soon as possible. Thank you for! (Due to the large volume of questions coming in, I can't answer them all. I'll try to answer as many as I can, as soon as I can. J. Col, Washington, USA)

Don't forget to scroll down to find the answer to your question - they're in reverse order by the date they were asked.

from AMANDA, NORTHEAST, PA., ?; December 31, 2000

A: I don't know about 15, but for a page on the classification of dinosaurs, click here. For more details, click here.

Q: Can you tell me what types of dinosaurs have been found in Florida and how many?
from bobby, key west, fl, usa; December 30, 2000

A: No dinosaur fossils have been found in Florida (it was underwater during the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs lived).

Q: The was an article placed within the SUN tabloid, on the Lockness Monster. Apparently, this beast has been eating people and there seems to be an attempt in covering it up. Some thirteen people., all told. What information do you have about the fatalities at the loch, at Inverness, please and thanks?
from E.B., Brewster, Washington State, USA; December 30, 2000

A: If they're covering it up, how did you read about it in a newspaper? That's not the type of thing people cover up - it's the type of thing they publicize (hence the newspaper article). If it's true (which I doubt), we'll all be hearing about it soon.

Q: Can I please see movie clips or pictures of lystrosaurus defending itself and I mean it
from DON C JR, CHANGI, SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE; December 29, 2000

A: We don't have any,

Q: why is placerias not classified as a dinosaur? why did it walk so slow?
from robert hills, sydney, nsw, australia; December 28, 2000

A: Placerias was a dicynodont (a so-called "mammal-like reptile") that lived during the late Triassic period, roughly 222 to 215 million years ago. Dicynodonts were pig-like plant-eaters with large tusks. Dicynodonts were quite different from dinosaurs in many ways, including thier teeth, skull, hip structure, etc.

For more information on Placerias, click here.

Q: I am doing a report on the Ichthyosaurus, and I can't find information on it's co-inhabitants.....Can you suggest any links that I can look at to find this information?
from Michelle S, Brunswick, Ohio, United States; December 28, 2000

A: Ichthyosaurus lived from the early Jurassic period until the early Cretaceous period, roughly 206 to 140 million year ago. For other animals (mostly dinosaurs) that lived during the early Jurassic period, click here. For other animals (mostly dinosaurs) that lived during the early Cretaceous period, click here.

Q: i need help finding info on the geganonasarus,igwanadan.
from carl s, austin, TX, usa; December 28, 2000

A: For information on Giganotosaurus, click here. For information on Iguanodon, click here.

Q: How come in your dictionary you said Tsintaosaurus was crestless? One reasearcher sugguested its crest was an altered nose bone, but another fossil was found with its crest(which was long, narrow, and pointed straight up) in the same position, so there was not a whole lot of evidence to support his theory. TSINTAOSAURUS WAS A LAMBEOSAUR, WHY DO YOU SAY IT IS NOT?
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 28, 2000

A: I've expanded the entry on Tsintaosaurus, but very little is known about it and there is no agreement among paleontologists about whether or not it had a crest (some paleontologists believe that its crest is simply an artifact of the fossilization process, and others think that the crest pointed backwards - I don't which is true). The specimen once known as Tsintaosaurus chingkankouensis is now thought to be the same as Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus (and was originally though to be Tanius). In the entry, I had listed the classification for Tanius but avoided it for Tsintaosaurus (because its fossils are so poorly preserved). See p.208 of Fastovsky and Weishampel's "The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs," who state, " In addition, there is a host of hadrosaurids that - for one reason or another, mostly having to do with their incomplete preservation - are yet unresolved at the highest reaches of the iguanodontian tree. These include ... Tsintaosaurus, ..."

Q: the miocene was in the tetiary or quarternary? when did the hippo evolve?
from DON C J R, ?, singapore, ?; December 27, 2000

A: The Teriary Period. For a chart of geologic time, click here. Hippos evolved during the late Miocene Epoch

Q: When was the createous period?
from Johny B., St.louis, Mo., U.S.A; December 27, 2000

A: The Cretaceous period lasted from until 144 until 65 million years ago.

Q: Does the komoto dragon eat flesh, if so do they eat human flesh also. Where could I find the komoto dragon? What part of the world does it live in? How long have they been on earth for. How big are they? Is there a scientific reason why they are the size they are(ex:mutation caused by radiation)?
from Tammy O., Wiliamstown, ontario, Canada; December 27, 2000

A: Komodo dragons are meat-eaters (and do occasionally eat people). These huge lizards live on islands in Indonesia, including the island of Komodo. No one knows why they are the size they are (but it probaly wasn't radiation). It evolved about 4 million years ago.

For information on the Komodo dragon, click here.

Q: I have two questions: 1) Why was Brachiosaurus so big? and 2) did any dinosaurs prey on it?
from courtney p age 5, seattle, wa, usa; December 27, 2000

A: 1. No one knows. 2. Probably not. For information on Brachiosaurus, click here.

Q: Any information on what the average lifespan of an individual t-rex was?
from Tom, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA; December 25, 2000

A: I've seen guesstimates of about a 40-year life span for T. rex (but this could be way off).

Q: Pachyrhinosaurus used what to defend itself? How did lystrosaurus survive the permian extinction and how did it defend itself
from DON C JR, ?, singapore, ?; December 25, 2000

A: Pachyrhinosaurus had a beak, a spiked frill, and perhaps a snout horn. it's short tail may or may not have been used for protection. No one knows why some genera survive mass extictions while others do not. Lystrosaurus may have used its tusk-like fangs for protection (also, living in a herd is another type of protection).

Q: What is the oldest dinosaur ever found and how old is it?
from Andrea W., Nashua, NH, USA; December 23, 2000

A: The oldest dinosaurs (as yet unnamed prosauropods) known so far are from Madagascar and date from about 230 million years ago.

Q: Where can I find info on Pachyrhinosaurus beyond the dinosaur, etc dictionary? You don't seem to have an information sheet on it, even though it is a major dinosaur.
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 23, 2000

A: I added a page on Pachyrhinosaurus. (Aren't they all major dinosaurs?)

Q: What is "Valdoraptor"?
from russell p, seattle, wa, The United States of America; December 23, 2000

A: Valdoraptor was a theropod (meat-eating dinosaur) from England. Only a few foot bones from Valdoraptor have been found, so very little is known about it.

Q: Is there a theory about how the styracosurus mates? If so, what is it? Thank you! plaese send a.s.a.p.
from Laura R., Troy, MI, U.S.A.; December 23, 2000

A: I haven't heard of any.

Q: Where were the first dinosaurs found ?
from Sean C, Plattsburgh, New York, USA; December 23, 2000

A: Click here for early dinosaur finds.

Q: is there any movie or book i can find on why dinosaures died?
from courtney, antioch, tennesee, usa; December 23, 2000

A: The best book I know is "The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs" by D.E. Fastovsky and D.B. Weishampel, 1996, Cambridge University Press.

Q: I have two questions: 1)I have heard rumors about a new, giant raptor found somewhere in japan. It supposedly was larger than T-rex, and, most strangely, had a mouth that worked like scissors, with no teeth but just two 'blades", if you will. Is there any truth to this rumor?? 2) Is there any evidence that dinosaurs would form herds with more than one species in them ?????? (must find this question out soon)
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 22, 2000

A: 1. I haven't heard of it. 2. I haven't heard of any mixed herds.

Q: Hi answer these questions please.I am in the 5th grade and I whant to be a paleontologist and dig up the bones of my favorite dinosaur the VELOCIRAPTOR so answer these questions on velociraptors please. 1.I know how tall was a velociraptor but I am still mixed up about it because some people say he was 2 feet tall,some like you say he was 3 feet tall,but some say he was 2 1/2 feet tall who is correct? 2.Could a pack of velociraptors kill a t-rex?How? 3.Was a velociraptor smarter than a t-rex?Was a velociraptor faster than a t-rex? 4.Could one velociraptor kill a t-rex?How? 5.Did velociraptors take good or bad care of there young? 6.Who was bigger, a male velociraptor or a female velociraptor? 7.What bird is closely related to a velociraptor?A eagle,a hawk,a owl,a parrot,or a pigeon.
from Paul S., Brooklyn, N.Y, U.S.A; December 22, 2000

A: 1. Height is a messy statistic, because it can be measured in different ways. The height you report depends on whether you measure the heoght to the top of the shoulders (which is standard) or the top of the head (which is intuitive). Thsi is why length is the standard measurement given for most dinosaurs.
2., 4., 6. No one knows.
5. No nests or eggs together with adults have been found, so no one knows.
3. Velociraptor had a larger brain to body mass ratio (which could be mean that is was more intelligent). Speed is mostly a function of stride length and leg length, and T. rex had much longer legs than Velociraptor, so it was probably much faster.
5., 7. I don't know.

Q: info on a cheetah
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 21, 2000

A: For information on cheetahs, click here.

Q: What information can I get on the ''Iguanadon Dinosour''?
from Christina K, New York, New York, United States; December 21, 2000

A: For information on Iguanodon, click here.

Q: T-rex is not the scrayiest dinosaur! Hello! Gigantosaurus is, by far! I'm listing to Disney's Dinosaur Song factroy Song: Big Rock, and it ROCKS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Oh, and How come everyone is calling the T-rex the 'king' when he is not the biggest? And, How fast did Pachycephalosaurus run, i can't find anything on that! I'm doing a report on it, so please hurry with my answer. You guys rock!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1
from Andrew, ??, ???, ????; December 21, 2000

A: Sorry, but I've nevere seen an estimate of Pachycephalosaurus's exact speed. They call T. rex the king because rex means king in Latin.

Q: I've asked you this before but I could'nt find the result!!!! Sarupods(i.e. Braciasaurus etc etc etc)must have had a huge blood flow along their neck to get blood to their brain. If it lowered its head to the ground, sure the bloodflow would blast the head off!!!!!!!?????
from Jonathan L (Baraonyx boy), ?, ?, England; December 20, 2000

A: They probably had a series of valves in the blood vessels of the neck to prevent the blood from flowing in the wrong direction (and to prevent it from flowing too quickly).

Q: how many bones are in a t rex?
from eaden p., bowling green, kentucky, usa; December 20, 2000

A: About 200; no complete T. rex has been found.

Q: I am A kindergarten Teacher is there any simple crafts on dinosaurs for this age group?
from Kara H, Campbell River, BC, Canada; December 20, 2000

A: Yes, click here for dinosaur crafts.

Q: how many dinosaurs are in the world?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 20, 2000

A: There are about 1,000 known genera and many more species, but these represent only a very small percent of the dinosaurs that existed.

Q: What did the dinosaurs sound like?
from Caitlin, Tampa, Florida, ?; December 19, 2000

A: The dinosuars were extremely varied in their size, shape, and habits; their sounds probably varied quite a bit. For example, the dinosaur Parasaurolophus probably made a deep, fog-horn like sound as air vibrated within its hollow crest.

Q: 1.Whats the latest news on TYrannosaurus Imperator? 2.Are there any pictures of him? 3. WHo was deadlier when it came to killing, tyrannosaur family or dromaeosaur family
from Kenny, ?, ?, ?; December 19, 2000

A: As far as I know, nothing has been published on Rigby's new specimen of Tyrannosaurus, and the even the name is uncertain. It is rumored to have larger forearms than T. rex and is supposedly bigger in general. I have no idea which was deadlier.

from Shelby Peterson, Park City, Utah, U.S.A; December 19, 2000

A: In any food chain, there have to be more organisms at the lower levels of the chain because the transfer of food energy is inefficient and much of the energy is wasted. A large number of plants (producers) can support a smaller number of plant-eaters (primary consumers). These plant-eaters are eaten by a smaller number of carnivores (secondary consumers). For example, it may have taken hundreds of acres of plants to feed a small group of Triceratops. These Triceratops could supply a single T. rex with enough food to survive over its lifetime.

Q: Is the Homalocephale a lizard hip or a Bird hip
from Thomas P., morrisville, vermont, U.S.A; December 19, 2000

A: Homalocephale was an ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaur. For more information on Homalocephale, click here.

Q: This is probably a silly question to you (but only because you know the answer and I don't!) It was discovered fairly recently that a reptile's sex is determined by the temperature at which its egg is incubated: above a certain temperature it'll be one sex, below that,the other (I can't remember which way round, or what the cutoff point is). The outfall of an asteroid impact or massive vulcanism would have created a 'nuclear winter' overcast. Could the temperature have dropped just enough so that all hatchlings became same-sex? So that, when the last breeding pair died, the speceies was to all intents and purposed extinct? Or did sex-chaning reptiles happen in real life as well as Jurassic Park?
from Frances L, London, ?, UK; December 18, 2000

A: No, that's an excellent point. Not all reptiles have this system, but many (like alligators) do. This certainly makes them vulnerable when weather patterns change. No one knows if dinosaurs had this system, but if they did, your theory might help explain things.

Q: will dinosours ever be cloned?
from jay h, newark, nj, usa; December 18, 2000

A: Perhaps, if undamaged DNA is ever found.

Q: If there was an asteroid/comet impact, what effect would the sound of its falling have made? An aircraft's sonic boom is loud enough - a piece of rock the size of a continent in free fall must have had given off a devastating sonic boom. I just wondered - how far away from ground zero would anyone have to be to still be alive to witness the actual imapct?
from Frances L, London, ?, UK; December 18, 2000

A: The sonic boom must indeed have been large, but most organisms would have been far away from it. When an asteroid hits, the sonic boom is probably the least of your worries.

Q: How big was the largest sabertoothed creodont????
from Daroo, ?, ?, ?; December 18, 2000

A: The biggest creodonts were the size of bears.

Q: Can any one get me a "Cambrain Period Time line?"
from Jonathon, centerville, MA, USA; December 18, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: How and why did the T-rex and other dinosaurs become extinct? Where did the t-rex live? What did the t-rex eat? What is the t-rex's scientific name? What was the t-rex's habitat and niche? Was it usually a predator or prey and to what(the t-rex)?
from Wendell P., Teaneck, New Jersey, U.S.A.; December 18, 2000

A: The different dinosaurs went extinct for many different reasons (but it generally boils down to not adapting to change). Most dinosaurs died in background extinctions, but the last non-avian dinosaurs died during the K-T extinction, which was probably caused by asteroid impact(s). T. rex's scientific name is Tyrannosaurus rex (that's its genus and species). For the other information on T. rex, see our pages on T. rex.

Q: I know this is my third question, but I've been waiting for years to find someone to ask! Given that 90% of all animal life died in the extinctions, there must have been mountains of rotting flesh all over the place. What effect could disease have had on those that survived the inital disaster?
from Frances L, London, ?, UK; December 18, 2000

A: All the organisms in the affected families don't die at once. A mass extinction probably takes place over a long period of time, and is likely a chain reaction. One or two species falter; and weaker individuals die within those species, and the species reproductive rate also drops drastically (becasue of environmental changes). Within a few generations, the species is gone. This affects other species who depended on this species for food (or other necessities). These affected species soon die out, and so on.

Q: I've read of the debate about whether it was an asteroid/comet impact or vulcanism that caused the K-T extinctions. Couldn't it have been both? The Dekkan Traps were spewing out gases and smoke, changing the environment. I read something about the Dekkan Traps being 'on the other side of the world' to the Yutucan impact crater. Really the other side of the world? If a stellar body had impacted, the shock waves would have rung the earth like a bell. Wouldn't it be natural for the weak points in the mantle, such as the Dekkan Traps., to have responded to that 'kick'?
from Frances L, London, ?, UK; December 18, 2000

A: It certainly could have been both factors contributing to the mass extinction. Also, the meteor impact may have been more like the recent Shoemaker-Levy impacy on Jupiter, where a huge meteor broke into pieces and hit the planet in a series of impacts.

There is new evidence that the Yucatan peninsula wasn't the only point of impact. The Shiva crater is a another huge impact crater located under the Arabian Sea off the coast of India near Bombay. This crater also dates from the K-T boundary, 65 million years ago, when the Chicxulub crater at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula also formed. Although it has shifted because of sea floor spreading, when pieced together it would be about 370 miles (600 km) by 280 miles (450 km) across and 7.5 miles (12 km) deep (and may be just part of a larger crater). It is estimated to have been made by a bolide (an asteroid or meteoroid) 25 miles (40 km) in diameter. This crater was named by the paleontologist Sankar Chatterjee for Shiva, the Hindu god of destruction and renewal.

from GregoryD., EAST ISLIP, NEW YORK, U.S.A; December 18, 2000

A: The bird-sized meat-eaters just ate small prey (like modern-day small meat-eaters). They probably ate animals like small lizards, amphibians, worms, and insects.

Q: what is a Anatosaurus?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 17, 2000

A: Anatosaurus is an obsolete name for Edmontosaurus (a plant-eating dinosaur). For information on Edmontosaurus, click here.

Q: Where do heterodontosarus' young come from?
from Juvilyn E., okinawa, Japan, Mc.tureous; December 17, 2000

A: They hatched from eggs.

Q: what other animals live in the Jurassic time than dinosaurs?
from Josh W, Newmanstown, Pa, us; December 17, 2000

A: There were many other land animals during the Jurassic period including many other reptiles, early mammals, early birds, insects, worms, snails, etc. There were also a lot of aquatic animals, including fish (including sharks), marine reptiles (like Ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs, and plesiosaurs), corals, sponges, gastropods, etc.

Q: How big was Amphicyon Atlantus, and whats the head differences betwween TYrannosaurus Rex Fragilis and Robustus???
from Monstarr, ?, ?, ?; December 17, 2000

A: Members of the genus Amphicyon were about 6.5 ft (2 m) long (I don't know about the particular species you mentioned). I've never seen any professional references to either Tyrannosaurus rex fragilis or robustus (it would seem to refer to small vs. large specimens). In 1990, Dr. Kenneth Carpenter theorized that female T. rex were larger and more robust, and had larger bony horns on the head.

Q: Why did the jurasic period end?
from Kyle K, ?, ?, U.S.A; December 16, 2000

A: There was a minor mass extinction towards the end of the Jurassic period. No one knows what caused this extinction.

Q: How did the Quaesitosaurs defend its self?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 16, 2000

A: Quaesitosaurus' main defenses were its huge size and its whip-like tail. It may have had some protective bony plates on its back. For more information on Quaesitosaurus, click here.

Q: I saw a dinosaur in Jurassic Park. Just before it attacked, it spit (poison, I think) at its intended victim's eyes. It also opened a frilly thing around its neck (sort of like a cobra). Can you tell me the name of the dinosaur? Thanks.
from Madison A., Montreal, Quebec, Canada; December 16, 2000

A: That was Dilophosaurus, but there is no evidence of that it spat anything or that it had a frill; it did have two crests on its head, though. For more information on Dilophosaurus, click here.

Q: What is the mph that they travel?
from Ms, Lexington, Ky, usa; December 15, 2000

A: Dinosaurs varied greatly in size and build, and their speed varied greatly also. For a page on dinosaur locomotion, click here.

Q: how did the famous t.rex defend him/herself?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 16, 2000

A: Mostly with its famous teeth. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: We found a Columbian mammoth tusk and tooth, what should we do with it, and is it worth money?
from Danielle D., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; December 15, 2000

A: I don't what they're worth - you should take it to a university or natural history museum paleontology department where an expert on mammoths can help you.

Q: What kind of plants do Iguanodons eat?
from Carly C., Pittstown, NJ, United States of America; December 15, 2000

A: It isn't known exactly, but some of the relatively low-lying plants that were common during the early Cretaceous period (when Iguanodon lived) were cycads and horsetails. For more information on Cretaceous period plants, click here. For more information Iguanodon, click here.

Q: What kind of environment did dinosaurs live in?
from Zach H., Covington,KY, Kentucky, United States of America; December 15, 2000

A: Different dinosaurs lived in a variety of different environments all around the Earth, from desert-like areas to forests.

Q: 1)Do you know where I could find a picture of a bird's respiratory system? 2)Is this sight only for things about dinosaurs? 3)How do you get the answers for questions not about dinosaurs? I have no "find" under the file menu? Thank You very much for your time.
from Amber R., Eagan, MN, USA; December 14, 2000

A: 1. I don't know of any online. You should check your school or public library. 2. Pretty much but not exclusively. 3. We have a search engine for this site (at the top if this page) which will direct you to a topic (if we cover it).

Q: What Dinosour is larger then a t Rex and is a meat or plant eater..
from Brian R, Sylmar, California, America; December 14, 2000

A: The meat-eaters Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus were a bit longer than T. rex (but not heavier). Many plant-eating dinosaurs were bigger than T. rex, including Brachiosaurus, Apatosaurus, Argentinosaurus, etc.

Q: How did Dinosaurs mate?
from Joyce, milwaukee, WI, USA; December 14, 2000

A: No one knows.

Q: what do dinasour teeth look like
from luke. B, Brighton., Sussex, England; December 14, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: What is the difference between the digestive lenght between carnivors and herbavors?
from ben o, hockessin, 19707, U.S.; December 14, 2000

A: Plant-eaters (herbivores) usually have to eat a much larger volume of material than meat-eaters (carnivores) do in order to get the same amount of calories. This is because leaves, twigs, and roots are low in calories. This means that plant-eaters usually have larger digestive systems. Plants are also hard to digest, so some plant-eaters have a complex stomach and multi-stage digestive strategies (like regurgitating A partially digested cud, and chewing it). Some plant-eating dinosaurs swallowed stones (called gastroliths) which remained in the crop (a modified stomach) to help digest tough plant material.

Q: Who was Mary Anning
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 14, 2000

A: She was an English woman who found many important fossils, including the first fossilized plesiosaur and Ichthyosaurus. For more information on Anning, click here.

Q: What was T-Rex environmet
from Jessica, Zephyrhills, FL, USA; December 14, 2000

A: T. rex probably lived in forested areas. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: What was the name of the first known bird? How did it travel from place to place?
from Jackie F, Bergenfield, NJ, United States; December 13, 2000

A: The earliest-known bird is Archaeopteryx; it could fly. For more information on Archaeopteryx, click here.

Q: Who named the Iguanodons and what does the name mean?
from Jackie F, Bergenfield, NJ, United States; December 13, 2000

A: Iguanodon means "iguana tooth." It was named by Gideon A. Mantell in 1825. For more information on Iguanodon, click here.

Q: In the Triassic Period, the dinosaurs' hips and legs changed. What were the names of the 2 groups based on the differences of their hips? Describe the type of hip each group had.
from Jackie F, Bergenfield, NJ, United States; December 13, 2000

A: The two different groups of dinosaurs are the ornithischians and the saurischians. For more information on these groups (and pictures), click here.

Q: What era did the dinosuars live in and what were its three periods?
from Jackie F, Bergenfield, NJ, United States; December 13, 2000

A: The dinosaurs lived during the Mesozoic Era, which is divided in to the Triassic period, the Jurassic period, and the Cretaceous period.

Q: How are dinosours and birds are related and different from each other
from Fuad M., cupertino, CA, U.S; December 13, 2000

A: Birds may have evolved from theropod dinosaurs. For more information on this, click here.

Q: Is there a type of a dinosaur that breaths fire?
from Brenan D, iowa city, cr, cr; December 13, 2000

A: No.

Q: can you send me info. on the velocraptor and the saltopus?
from jamie n, menlo, iowa, u.s.; December 13, 2000

A: For Velociraptor, click here. For Saltopus, click here.

Q: Who named the Pentaceratops? What year was it named?
from Abby S., Chesterfield, Missouri, U.S.A.; December 13, 2000

A: Pentaceratops was named by paleontologist Henry F. Osborn in 1923. For more information on Pentaceratops, click here.

Q: Can you answer theses two questions: 1) What (Meat eater)dinosaur is small and named "Speedy theif"? 2) Which dinosaur has pebbly sking and a toothless, spoon-shaped beak that is used for eating plants and his head slopes backwards and the travel in herds?
from Colin B., Somerville, MA, ?; December 13, 2000

A: 1. Velociraptor 2. Could be Parasaurolophus

Q: What is the name of this dinosaur which has a duckbill and makes a deep, bellowing sound like a tuba and lives in colonies?
from Colin B., Somerville, MA, ?; December 13, 2000

A: Parasaurolophus

Q: Regarding Avimumus: My son is interested in gathering more information on the above dinosaur. Would you have any information about other animals, including dinosaurs, which may have existed in similar biological niche(s) and, thus, were possible competitors or predators? Animals/dinosaurs thought to have inhabited same biome, or existed in same time frame, or found in the same part of the world, etc? We've read the sketches of many of the dinosaurs already and have some candidates. Information he's gathered seems to indicate that speed/agility/small(er) size was a factor in both food gathering and avoiding becoming food! Further, since feathers weren't used for flight, could one figure that they may have contributed to camoflage or maybe, like modern birds, used them for display/courtship? He's also trying to figure out if brain/body size ratios really mean that more equals smarter. I said I didn't think so, necessarily, since even 'pea-brained' dinosaurs, as a species, lived for millions of years and that indicates a successful 'model' of a lifeform to me. I really enjoyed learning about the uranium radioisotope breakdown dating for such ancient fossils and that paleontologists are reading 'between the lava', as it were, since these are the mineral deposits containing it. Thanks. Project is due next Monday 12/18.
from James D, Brewer, Maine, USA; December 13, 2000

A: Usually there's only one species per niche - if there are two, they compete, and eventually one wins and one loses (dies out or adapts to some other niche).

For dinosaurs that lived during the same time as Avimimus, see the listing of late Cretaceous dinosaurs. For other dinosaurs that lived in Mongolia (like Avimimus), click here and go to the listing on Mongolia.

As to EQ (brain to body mass ratio), bigger usually means smarter, but this isn't an absolute, and EQ doesn't work well when comparing disparate animals. Also, being brainy isn't necessary for survival in many cases - like Stegosaurus (which you mentioned), and many other plant-eaters. Big brains were more useful to meat-eaters who had the challenge of catching prey.

Early feathers also may have been used for insulation (think of a down blanket).

Q: where can I find information on Protoceratops
from Matthew G, batson, texas, U.S.A; December 13, 2000

A: For information on Protoceratops, click here.

Q: Was a Wooly Mammouth an herbivore or a carnivore?
from michelle d, denver, co, usa; December 13, 2000

A: Woolly Mammoths were herbivores (plant-eaters. For information on Woolly Mammoths, click here.

Q: What is a carnivore?
from coocoo, ifldklhjob, Tefhjek,, hssvbc; December 13, 2000

A: A carnivore is a meat-eater. T. rex, for example, was a carnivore.

Q: what is the name of the era in which Cro-Magnon Man lived?
from julie c., atlanta, ga, ?; December 13, 2000

A: Cro-Magnons lived during the Cenozoic Era (the Cenozoic lasted from 65 million years ago until today, but Cro-Magnons lived about 35,000-10,000 years ago). For a chart of geologic time, click here.

Q: Where can I find the behaviors of a Supersaurus?
from cody f., ?, ?, ?; December 13, 2000

A: Not much is known about the behavior of dinosaurs. For other information on Supersaurus, click here.

Q: How can I write a good report on Ultrasauros?
from Brit Brit A., San Angelo, Texas, America; December 13, 2000

A: First learn about Ultrasauros (click here for a page on Ultrasauros). Then see the page on how to write a great dinosaur report.

Q: How many Dinosaurs ere they?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 13, 2000

A: There are about 1,000 known genera and many more species, but these represent only a very small percent of the dinosaurs that existed.

from MARY H, ?, ?, ?; December 13, 2000

A: For information on the Cretaceous period, click here.

Q: My dinosaur is Deinonychus, and I want to know how the female takes care of its baby. Please send me back as soon as possible. Thank you.
from Arthur L, San francisco, CA, US; December 12, 2000

A: No one knows if Deinonychus cared for its young or not. If someone finds fossils of Deinonychus nests and eggs together with fossils of an adult of the same species, one could infer that there was parental care (but this has not happened for Deinonychus). For information on Deinonychus, click here.

Q: How do scientists know that a fossil is from a dinosaur and not some ancient reptile?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: Dinosaurs ARE ancient reptiles, but are quite different from other ancient reptiles. The most obvious difference is their stance. Other reptiles have thighs that are horizontal to the ground (their legs sprawl out to the sides). Dinosaur legs are vertical to the ground (columnar).

Q: ?
from how tall is the t rex, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: Tyrannosaurus rex was up to 40 feet (12.4 m) long, about 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6 m) tall. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: Where can I find more about these dinosaurs: T.Rex, Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus, Dilophosaurus,any pteradon big enough for a full grown human to ride, Ankylosaurus, Gallimimus, Dromiceimimus,,Torosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Gorgosaurus (Albertosaurus), Dryptosaurus, Pachycephalosaurus, Nanosaurus, Lambeosaurus,and Carnatosaurus.
from R. Nathan, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: Click on their names for information on them: T. rex, Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus, Dilophosaurus, Quetzalcoatlus, Ankylosaurus, Gallimimus, Dromiceiomimus, Torosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Gorgosaurus (Albertosaurus), Dryptosaurus, Pachycephalosaurus, Nanosaurus, Lambeosaurus, and Carnotaurus.

Q: hey! ive written to you before, and you were a wonderful help! but i have a new question for you... did raptors and t-rex get along well what were both of their behaviors... im doing a project in school and i have to pretend to be the keeper of the meat eating animals.. is there anything i should need to know about these animals like what they eat.. what their reactions are... so on and so on.. i reallyy needd to know ASAPPPP you have been a great help but i reallyy need a answer thanx sososososososos much!
from Jenna P., L.A., where do ya think?, lemme think... U S A~; December 12, 2000

A: The various raptors (like Deinonychus, Velociraptor, Utahraptor, etc.) lived in different places and occupied very different niches than T. rex did. I doubt they would get along if put side by side. As to what they ate, it is known that T. rex ate Triceratops (and probably other large plant-eating dinosaurs, like hadrosaurs).

from JAMEIL M., ATLANTA, GA, UNITED STATES; December 12, 2000

A: For a page on Compsognathus, click here. For a page on how to write a dinosaur report, click here.

Q: I need information on the cretaceous time period what sites can i go to
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: Click here for a section on the Cretaceous period.

Q: how is absolute age dating of a fossil done?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: Radioisotope-dating of the bracketing lava layers is done. For dinosaurs, Uranium-235 is used. For more information on dating fossils, click here.

Q: can you tell me all the sizes of all the diosaurs
from johan m, miami, florida, united states of america; December 12, 2000

A: There are about 1,00 known types of dinosaurs (genera) and they ranged from the size of a crow to over 100 feet long.

Q: I need information on the dinosuar Camptosaurus.
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: For information on Camptosaurus, click here.

Q: what is a chaperall
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: A chaparral is a shrubby coastal area that has hot dry summers and mild, cool, rainy winters. For more information, click here.

Q: what is the name of the first dinosaur described scientifically?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 12, 2000

A: The first dinosaur to be described scientifically was Megalosaurus in 1824. For more information on Megalosaurus, click here. For more information on the first dinosaur fossils, click here.

Q: what is the size? of the Pteranodon where it lived? diet when it existed adaptations enemies who discoverd it when it was discovered where it was discovered
from Alexandra F, ?, ?, ?; December 11, 2000

A: For information on Pteranodon, click here.

Q: What other animals are related to a kangaroo?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 11, 2000

A: Kangaroos are marsupials. For a page on marsupials, click here.

Q: Which is bigger? Ankylosaurus or Euplocephalas? I mean Ankylosaurus was 4tons 35 feet and Euplocephalus 2 tons to over 2 feet
from DONOVAN C JR, ?, SINGAPORE, ?; December 11, 2000

A: Ankylosaurus was longer and heavier than Euoplocephalus.

Q: What are the traits of the Broncheosaurs.
from Brittnay A., San angelo, Texas, America; December 11, 2000

A: It you mean Brachiosaurus, click here. If you mean Brontosaurus (now called Apatosaurus), click here.

Q: Were there humans or cave men alive when Dinosaurs were around???
from Chad T, Normal, IL, USA; December 11, 2000

A: Mo. people evolved about 65 million years after the dinosaurs went extinct.

Q: Where did the composgnathus live? What did it use to defend itself?
from composgnathus, Redford, MI, USA; December 11, 2000

A: Compsognathus fossils have been found in southern Germany and France. Its defense was sharp teeth (plus it was a fast runner). For more information on Compsognathus, click here.

Q: Where can I find lots of info on the Platybelodon?
from Alison S., Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.; December 11, 2000

A: For a page on Platybelodon, click here.

Q: Can u help me i cant find any information on the Scelidosaurus because i have a report due on thusday November 14 and i need INFORMATION....can you please help me???
from Alexandria S, Johnston, Rhode Island, USA; December 11, 2000

A: For a page on Scelidosaurus, click here.

Q: describe a birds habitat
from jonathan.c, new york, bronx, ?; December 11, 2000

A: Birds live in many different types of habitats, from frozen tundra to deserts to rain forests (and just about everything in between).

Q: Where can I find more information about Giganotosaurus and Dilophosaurus?
from R. Nathan, ?, GA, ?; December 11, 2000

A: For Giganotosaurus, click here. For Dilophosaurus, click here

Q: Name a plant eating dinosaur with three horns on its head.
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 11, 2000

A: Triceratops

Q: what was life like in the time of the dinosaur Deinonychus?
from Zahraa B., La Palma, CA, L.A; December 10, 2000

A: Deinonychus lived during the Cretaceous period, about 110 to 100 million years ago. This was a time of high seismic activity (like volcanos and earthquakes). It was also warmer than it is now, and seasonality was low (the difference between winter and summer was not very extreme). For more information on the Cretaceous period click here. For more information on Deinonychus click here.

Q: how did baryonyx reproduce?
from melissa, hope mills, nc, ?; December 10, 2000

A: No one knows.

Q: Do you have a picture of Eudibamus?
from firebird, ?, ?, ?; December 10, 2000

A: For information and a bigger picture of Eudibamus, click here.

from ALEXANDER B, APPLE VALLEY, CAL., U. S.A.; December 10, 2000

A: T. rex was at the top of the food chain.

Q: What did megladon look like and how big was he?
from Kevin R, Everett, Washington, USA; December 10, 2000

A: Megalodon was probably similar to a great white shark but bigger.

Q: Can you tell me where I can find good info about dinosaur food chains?
from Courtney S., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA; December 10, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: What is the smallest meat-eating dinosaur?
from Kordero M., Crosby, Texas, United States; December 10, 2000

A: Until recently, it was probably Compsognathus (chicken-sized), but a new, smaller theropod, Microraptor was recently found. It isn't certain if Microraptor is an adult, but if it is, then it will replace Compsognathus as the smallest (until an even smaller one is found).

Q: i have to do a report on tryannosaurus but i can't find any information. Can you help me?
from Anitha A., Torrance, CA, USA; December 10, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: What is the difference between male and female dinosaurs in bones?
from donovan, ?, ?, ?; December 10, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: What is the family name of the "Apatosaurus?"
from Cindy C, North Bergen, NJ, USA; December 9, 2000

A: It belonged to the family of diplodocid dinosaurs (huge, long-necked, whip-tailed plant-eaters, family Diplodocidae).

Q: how much does a dinosaur weigh?
from m.s., ?, ?, ?; December 9, 2000

A: The dinosaurs varied from the size of a chicken (weighing just a few pounds) to over 100 feet long long (weighing over 100 tons).

Q: is it quezelquotalus or quezelquotal?
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 9, 2000

A: Quetzalcoatlus.

Q: is "deinochyosaurs" a valid name for the dromeosaurs?
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 9, 2000

A: Deinonychosaurs has been used lately as a clade containing the dromaeosaurs (or dromaeosaurids). Deinonychosauria named was named by Padian, Hutchenson and Holtz, and defined as the clade of all aimals with a more recent common ancestor with Deinonychus than with birds. Dromaeosaurids are defined as the most recent common ancestor of Dromaeosaurus and all of the descendants. See:

Q: My daughter has been assigned to give a report on the Alticamelus and I can find no information on this anywhere so far. Can you provide me with references or info on this one. thankyou.
from jame c, middletown, ohio, usa; December 9, 2000

A: For information on Alticamelus, click here.

Q: I need to know the exact shelter used by an Apatosaurus, and why was it a good shelter for this Dinosaur?
from Prajesh H, London, ?, England; December 9, 2000

A: I doubt dinosuars like Apatosaurus needed any shelter.

Q: why don't you have a fortune teller project?
from jaimie e, Neworleans, L.A., Americia; December 8, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: Please tell me all about the Iguanodon Dinosaur. I am doing research and need all the information I can obtain. Thank You
from Georgia C, Middletown, Ohio, USA; December 8, 2000

A: For a page on Iguanodon, click here.

Q: What does a pleisiosaurus look like?
from kaleighr, winnipeg, manitoba, canada; December 8, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: I am doing a project on extinct animals and i choosed the Mesosaurus. Could you please give me some information about this reptile that was extinct for millions of years and that used to live in fresh water...
from Laura, ?, Iowa, United States; December 7, 2000

A: For information on Mesosaurus, click here.

Q: What does a Scaphognathus Crassirostris look like?
from Connor W, Denver, Colorado, US; December 7, 2000

A: There's a good drawing of it at:

Q: slowest moving of all the dinosaurs
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 7, 2000

A: I'm not sure, but I would guess that it was the ankylosaurs (the armored plant-eaters, like Ankylosaurus and Euoplocephalus).

Q: Be able to tell what a dinosaur eats by its teeth.
from Brett, Lawrenceville, GA, USA; December 7, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: What did triceratops eat?
from Lawren M., Ft. Benning, GA, USA; December 7, 2000

A: Triceratops was an herbivore (a plant-eater). It probably ate cycads, palms, and other low-lying plants with its tough beak. Triceratops could chew well with its cheek teeth (like other Ceratopsians, but unlike most other dinosaurs). For information on Triceratops, click here.

Q: What were the Dromeosauruses eating habits.
from James A., B., Mass., United States; December 7, 2000

A: Dromaeosaurus was a carnivore (a meat-eater) that probably ate plant-eating dinosaurs (like hadrosaurs).

from keyondra H., miami, florida, USA; December 7, 2000

A: Insects evolved during the Silurian Period, 438 to 408 million years ago.

Q: Apparently there is some kind of fish still living today which has been around since Dinosaurs were alive and well. Any ideas what it's called?
from Dan C, Reading, ?, UK; December 7, 2000

A: Many have, but the one you're probably thinking of is the Coelacanth, which people though went extinct long ago, but found off the coast of Africa

Q: whatis a plant eating dinosaur called.
from Victor H., Kansas City, Kansas, United States; December 6, 2000

A: In general, plant-eaters are called herbivores. Some plant-eating groups of dinosaurs were the sauropods (like Brachiosaurus and Diplodocus) and the ornithischians (like Maiasaura, Triceratops, and Stegosaurus).

Q: what does rex in t. rex stand for?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 6, 2000

A: It means king (in Latin). The T. should be capitalized because it stands for a genus (and the genus name is always capitalized, although the species name is not). The T. stands for Tyrannosaurus (which means tyrant lizard in Latin).

Q: What is the name of a person who studies dinosaurs?
from ebonyp, Brooklyn, NewYork, United States; December 6, 2000

A: Paleontologists study fossils (including dinosaurs).

Q: Things about Wuerhosaurus.
from ET, Alexander, ILL, USA; December 6, 2000

A: Wuerhosaurus was a late stegosaurid dinosaur that was found in Wuerho, China. It was about 25 feet (7.5 m) long and was similar to Stegosaurus, but had smaller plates and front legs. For more information on it, click here\.

Q: what does the wolly mammath eat
from david f, erie, state, usa; December 6, 2000

A: Woolly mammoths were herbivores (plant-eaters) who ate grass and other plant material. For more information on woolly mammoths, click here.

Q: Ok look i reallyy need some info. on raptors... what do they like to eat.. what do they like to hunt.... what are they're reations to different things? plese jsut give me any thing verryy important i should need to know on them.. i really need to no as soon as u get this.. please answer my grade sorta depends on this... thanx sooo much!! i love this web. site its awesome!
from Jenna, L.A., ??? think about it!, U.S.; December 6, 2000

A: There many different types and sizes of raptors. Some raptors include Velociraptor, Deinonychus, and Utahraptor. They were all carnivores (meat-eaters), but their prey varied; plant-eating dinosaurs (like hadrosaurs) were probably a major source of food for raptors. As to their relationship to other animals, they were top predators.

Q: I nedd info about the great shark of the triasic era
from George, Juncos, Puerto Rico, EEUU; December 6, 2000

A: One of the sharks that liced furing the Triassic period was Hybodus. For some information on Hybodus, click here.

Q: I want to now lots of big information on a dalls porpoise whale.
from Ramon T., Aloha, none, no; December 6, 2000

A: For information Dall's porpoise, click here.

Q: What evidence would show that dinosaurs nurtured their young?
from judith, downers grove, il, usa; December 6, 2000

A: Finding fossillized eggs in nests with adults nearby. This has been found for Maiasaura.

Q: Where can I find imformationab out "Zigongosaurus"
from Gina N., Norwood, New York, U.S.A.; December 6, 2000

A: For information on Zigongosaurus, click here.

Q: Do you have any pictures of an Apatosaurs?If so I need it by December 8,2000.
from Amanda H., New Albany, Indiana, United States; December 6, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: What is the meaning of Proterozoic?
from Tiffany L., Terrell, Texas, United States; December 6, 2000

A: Proterozoic means earlier life.

Q: Why are dinosaurs differnt from each other?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 6, 2000

A: The same reason different mammals are different from each other, or different birds are different from each other. The different types each fit into different ecological niches.

Q: What were the dinosaurs mating habits?
from Ben T., Nottingham, Pa, United States; December 6, 2000

A: No one knows.

Q: what were their texture?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 6, 2000

A: Fossilized skin has been found for some dinosaurs (but not most of them). T. rex, for example, had skin with a pebbly texture. For more information on dinosaur skin, click here.

Q: What dinosaurs did Elmer S. Riggs discover?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 6, 2000

A: Elmer S. Riggs described Brachiosaurus.

Q: Why was Tyrannosaurus in the Cretaceous and not in the other periods
from Caleb B, monterey, California, USA; December 6, 2000

A: Because that's when T. rex evolved.


A: It is a plant-eating dinosaur that is now called Apatosaurus. For information on Apatosaurus, click here.

from SPG, SYD, NSW, AUS; December 5, 2000

A: Most fossils are found in sedimentary rock. For how fossils are formed, click here.

Q: I need to find out about the Oviraptor. Could you please sugest some sites to look at?
from Larissa C., Pittsford, NY, USA; December 5, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: How many Oviraptor fossils have been found?
from Larissa C., Pittsford, NY, Usa; December 5, 2000

A: Many skeletons (some complete) have been found, plus some eggs.

Q: How many Dinosaurs are there and how many more do you think there are left to find?
from Graham G, Hermon, Maine, U.S.; December 5, 2000

A: There are about 1,000 known genera and many more species, but these represent only a very small percent of the dinosaurs that existed.

Q: I need info. on the champsosaurus.
from matt m, bd., oh., u.s.a.; December 5, 2000

A: Champsosaurus was a long-jawed early reptile, a champsosaur that lived during the late Cretaceous period through the Eocene period. For more information on Champsosaurus, click here.

Q: I am in second grade and I am doing a project on Proceratops. One of the questions I have is how tall was the Proceratops? I found information that Proceratops was up to 6 feet long, but I cannot find out how tall.
from Will C, New Bern, NC, USA; December 5, 2000

A: For animals that walk on four legs (like Protoceratops), the height measurement is the height from the ground to the top of the shoulders (this is becaue the position of the head is quite variable). Since this is a mid-leading bit of information unless you know where the top of the shoulder is in an animal, I don't usually include it. Protoceratops was about 3 feet tall ( to the top of the shoulders).

Q: What animal is bigger than any dinosaur?
from John S., Jamestown, Virginia, U.S.A.; December 5, 2000

A: The blue whale.

Q: Where more dinosaurs plant-eaters or meat-eaters?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 5, 2000

A: Many more were plant eaters. For more information on what dinosaurs ate (and why), click here.

Q: Can you tell me every thing there is to know about dinosaurs? If so tell me.
from dex M., Ripley, Ohio, U.S.A; December 5, 2000

A: See Zoom Dinosaurs.

Q: What did the continets look like 150 million years ago?
from J.S., Livingston, New Jersey, Unided States; December 5, 2000

A: 150 million years ago, during the Jurassic period, the supercontinent (called Pangaea) was breaking up.

Q: Two questions: 1) did Parasaurolophus, Lambeosaurus, Saurolophus and perhaps other Lambeosaurs (I know Saurolophus wasn't a lambeosaur) have a skin membrane inbetween the head and the back of the head? I have seen this both ways and am curious. 2) If you have seen Disney's "Dinosaur", how accurate was it/
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 4, 2000

A: I've seen illustrations both ways, but I've never heard of any skin impressions found of this area (the definitiive way of determining if it existed or not). I haven't seen the movie.

Q: What was Teratosaurus?
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 4, 2000

A: When Teratosaurus was first discovered by anatomist R. Owen in 1841, it was thought to be a primitive dinosaur. Its status was disputed for years. It is now thought to have been an early rauisuchian thecodont (a primitive, socket-toothed reptile, not a dinosaur).

Q: How tall is a Scolosaurus?
from Huy Le, Houston, Texas, Hirres conty; December 4, 2000

A: Scolosaurus is an invalid for Euoplocephalus (an armored, plant-eating dinosaur). It was about 20 feet (6 m) long.

Q: What is a animal that begins with the letter U.
from Jay B., Kapolei, HI, US; December 4, 2000

A: For a page of them, click here.

Q: How come sharks didn't become extinct when the dinosaurs died out?
from Jessica j, sydney, N.S.W, Australia; December 4, 2000

A: They must have been able to adapt to the huge environmental changes that happened during the K-T mass extinction (and non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs, ammonites, and many other groups of organisms couldn't).

Q: Hi,Gday how are you? You guys must be pretty smart to be able to answer these questions!!! I was just wondering in which part of the world did most Dino's live? Also did dinosaurs eat flowers? Where there such thing as flowers? Hope to hear from you guys soon!!!!!!THANKS FROM JESS
from Jessica.J, Sydney, N.S.W, Australia; December 4, 2000

A: Dinosaurs lived all over the world - fossils have been found on all seven continents. Flowering plants evolved toward the latter part of the Mesozoic Era, so some late herbivorous (plant-eating) dinosaurs may have eaten flowering plants (angiosperms).

Q: what was the physcal appearance of the world when dinosaurs lived PLEASE GET BACK TO ME ASAP.???????????????????????????
from steph, syd, nsw, aus; December 4, 2000

A: The dinosaurs lived during the MEsizoc Era, a time of great continental changes (the breakup of Pangaea and increased volcanism), no polar ice (because of relatively high temperatures). For illustrations and more information on the Mesozoic Era, click here.

Q: How many bones does a Tyrannosaurus have?
from ben, Fbks, AK, USA; December 4, 2000

A: Approximately 200 or so. No complete T. rex skeletons have been found, so the exact number of bones isn't known.

Q: Can you tell me anything about the permain bipedal reptile, Eudibamus? Is there really enough evidence in associate bipedalism in Eudibamus? Thanks
from Nena S., Merced, CA, USA; December 4, 2000

A: The more compelling exidence for Eudibamus' bipedal stance it is long hind legs and small front legs (the hind legs were 64% longer than the front legs and 34% longer than its trunk). For more information on Eudibamus, click here.

Q: who are their ansesters???
from Katie Z, surrey, b.c, ?; December 4, 2000

A: The dinosaurs probably evolved from socket-toothed archosaurs (eary reptiles). FOr more information on the evolution of dinosaurs, click here.

Q: how tall did the t-rex grow and what age did it live to
from timmy, canberra, act, australia; December 4, 2000

A: T. rex lived during the Maastrichtian Age, (the late Cretaceous period, towards the end of the Mesozoic Era. Tyrannosaurus rex was up to 40 feet (12.4 m) long, about 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6 m) tall. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: How do Ihthyosaurus's protect themselves?? Answer me back asap.
from Madisen K., Calgary, AB, Canada; December 4, 2000

A: Ichthyosaurs had sharp teeth.

Q: Where do komoto dragons live? What do komoto dragons eat? How big do komoto dragons get? How small can they get? (komoto dragon) How many do they usually have in a litter? (komoto dragon) How fast can they eat? (komoto dragon) Who are their relatives? (komoto dragon) How long have they been around? (komoto dragons)
from Bobby-Joe n, Providence, Rhode Island, United States; December 4, 2000

A: For a page on Komodo dragons, click here.

Q: What is the real name for the long neck dinosaur? How did it walk? What did it eat? How big was it?
from christine b., topeka, ks, usa; December 4, 2000

A: There were a lot of long-necked dinosaurs (called sauropods), the most popular are Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, and Brachiosaurus. They were all herbivores (plant-eaters). They ranged in size, but were all huge. For their individual size, click on their names above.

Q: Why doesn't it have a odor?
from Vishal R, Edison, NJ, U.S.A; December 4, 2000

A: Why doesn't WHAT have an odor?

Q: Hello there. I need to know the periods between the Jurassic and the others before that. Thanks.!!!!
from Navid R, Dingwall, ?, Scotland; December 4, 2000

A: I'm not sure what you mean. For a list of all the geologic time periods, click here.

Q: why is the hypsilophodon extinct? why are dinosaurs scattered around the world? where was the hypsilophodon found and where did it live? what era did this an imal live in?
from Kia, ?, ?, ?; December 4, 2000

A: Hypsilophodon lived in what is now England (And perhaps elsewhere, but its fossils have only been found in England so far). It lived during the early Cretaceous Period, about 125-120 million years ago. No one knows exactly why it went extinct. Dinosaurs lived all over the word because they were a successful and diverse group of animals that occupied many ecological niches. For more information on Hypsilophodon, click here.

Q: Name a plant eating Dinosaur that has 3 horns.
from JJJJ, SSS, US, US; December 4, 2000

A: Triceratops.

Q: What color were the dinosaurs?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 4, 2000

A: No one knows.

Q: Why is Sauroluphus not considered a crested hadrosaur?
from russell p, seattle, wa, usa; December 3, 2000

A: Because its crest was small and solid. Saurolophus is classified as a hadrosaurine; most hadrosines had no head crest, but some of these "duckbills" had a small, solid bony crest, like Saurolophus and Maiasaura did. The other major sub-family of hadrosaurs, the lambeosaurines, had large, hollow crests (like Lambeosaurus).

Q: i want to find out about dino meat eaters?
from amanda, ?, ?, ?; December 3, 2000

A: The meat-eating dinosaurs were called theropods. Some theropods included T. rex, Carcharodontosaurus, Allosaurus, Dilophosaurus, Velociraptor, and Gallimimus.

Q: Who was the veliciraptar . What was his history . Was he big or small. Was he a meat eater. Please tall me all about his history.
from Sabrina Cepeda, New york, New york, Brooklyn; December 3, 2000

A: Velociraptor was a 6-foot-long meat-eater. For more information on Velociraptor, click here.

Q: I am doing a project on Kronosaurus and need to find out approximately what it might have weighed, and also what museums might have it's skeleton on display. Thank you!!!
from Kelly K., Stillwater, New York, USA; December 3, 2000

A: There's a Kronosaurus at Harvard's Museum of Natural History (I thinks its the only one on display the world). I've never seen an estimate of it's weight (it's length isn't even known with much certainty). For more information on Kronosaurus, click here.

Q: which chemical elements is the most abundant on earth?in the universe?
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 3, 2000

A: Oxygen is the most abundant element on Earth (it makes up about 47% of the earth's mass). Helium is the most abundant in the universe (it makes up about 75 percent of the universe - helium is second, and everything else is present in relatively minute amounts).

from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 3, 2000

A: Click here.

Q: I know this isn't a dinosaur question, but do you have any info on the endangered species act? I NEED THIS INFO NOW!!!!!!!!!
from firebird, ?, ?, ?; December 3, 2000

A: It was passes by U.S. congress in 1973. For the particulars of the act, see or

Q: I am doing a project on dinosaurs. I wanted to know if Allosaurus's had any nesting skills? And also I wanted to know any information on an Omnivore dinosaur that lived during the Jurassic Period.
from Barkley C., Albquqerque, New Mexico, USA; December 3, 2000

A: No Allosaurus nests have been found, so its nesting skills are unknown. I don't know of any Jurassic period omnivores (but there probably were some that haven't been found yet).

Q: what is the useul diet of the duck bill platepuss
from a.k.h, burley, idaho, united states; December 3, 2000

A: For information on the duck-billed platypus, click here.

Q: What was the enviroment like compared to today's enviroment?
from Karla. L, ?, ?, ?; December 3, 2000

A: The Mesozoic Era (when the dinosaurs lived) was warmer than it is today. The sea levels were higher (since there was no polar ice) and seasonality was low (the difference between summer and winter was not that great)..

Q: How and where does the Tyrannosaurus Rex live in each season of the year?
from n.y., sacramento, Ca, sacramento; December 2, 2000

A: During the late Cretaceous period, the seasons were not as extreme as they are now (seasonality was low during the entire Mesozoic Era). There was probably no need for T. rex to migrate to find food in the winter (which was very mild compared to now).

Q: Did a dilophasaurus really spit poison like the one in Jurassic Park?
from Daniel Z., ?, ?, Asuncion, Paraguay; December 3, 2000

A: No, there is no fossil evidence that Dilophosaurus spat anything. For information on Dilophosaurus, click here.

Q: How big are T-Rex's Teeth?
from ?????????, ?????????, ??????????, ??????????; December 3, 2000

A: T. rex's teeth were up to 9 inches (23 cm) long. For more information on T. rex, click here.

Q: can you give me the class, order, suborder, Infradorder, Micro-order, family, genus, and species of the t-rex. It for my project. Sorry for asking too much question..please answer as soon as possible..thanks.. ny
from n.y., sacramento, Ca, sacramento; December 2, 2000

A: For T. rex's classification, click here.

Q: Have fossil of the t-rex been found??
from n.y., sacramento, Ca, sacramento; December 2, 2000

A: Yes. For information on T. rex fossils, click here.

Q: Can you tell me anything at all about the cave lion. I'm doing a report and I need th know many facts, asepecially cool ones!!
from Kathryn B, 5th Grade, ?, ?; December 2, 2000

A: The cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea) was probably the biggest lion that ever lived. It was 25 percent bigger than lions today and was up to about 11.5 ft (3.5 m) long. This subspecies of lion lived in Europe (as far north as Denmark) until historical times; the last of these huge mammals lived until about 2,000 years ago in the Balkans (southeastern Europe). There are cave drawing of this huge feline. It probably hunted in a manner similar to that of today's lions.

Q: Which is bigger-a mamenchisaurus or an ultrasaurus?
from Daniel Z., Asuncion, ?, Paraguay; December 2, 2000

A: Ultrasauros was much bigger than Mamenchisaurus

Q: What did the Iguanodon eat,and how did it disapear?
from Tasiah R., Egg Harbor City, New Jersey, Atlantic County; December 2, 2000

A: Iguanodon was an herbivore (a plant-eater). It went extinct about 125 million years ago, during the early Cretaceous period. This was not during a mass extinction, so Iguanodon went extinct for other, unknown reasons. It probably couldn't adapt to the rapidly changing environment (the Cretaceous period was a time of rapid changes, including the spread of flowering plants and high volcanic activity). For more information on Iguanodon, click here.

Q: How did a velociraptor thake care of its young and what kind of environment did they live in?
from Tom M., Levittown, PA, USA; December 2, 2000

A: No one knows if Velociraptor did take care of its young. Velociraptor lived during the late Cretaceous period, about 85 - 80 million years ago;it lived in a hot, dry environment, a desert-like environment with some streams. For more information on Velociraptor, click here

from ASHLEE J, INDPLS., INDIANA, ?; December 2, 2000

A: The oldest-known dinosaur fossil is about 230 million years old.

Q: Why is the extinction of dinosaurs called "KT" extinction?
from Rachel, Dewitt, NY, USA; December 2, 2000

A: The K stands for Kreide (Kreide means chalk in German, and describes the chalky sediment layer from that time period, which gave that period its name) and the T stands for the Tertiary period, the next geologic time period.

Q: What happened during the cretastious period?
from Jon B., Torrance, Califfornia, USA; December 2, 2000

A: The Cretaceous period lasted for 79 million years, and a lot of things happened. Flowering plants evolved, dinosaurs and mammals were diversifying and flourishing, volcanic activity was high, and the period ended with a huge mass extinction. For more information on the Cretaceous period, click here.

Q: how big are dinosaurs bones
from rosamaria r, houston, tx, unite states; December 2, 2000

A: They vary a lot in size. THe small, chicken-sized dinosaurs had small bones (the size of chicken bones). The huge sauropods had some bones that were bigger than people.

from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 2, 2000

A: It sound like military school would be good for you. You need to learn some manners and develop some discipline.

from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 2, 2000

A: Tigers live about 10-15 years in the wild, and about 20 years in captivity. Please read our page about tigers\ before asking more tiger questions!

from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 2, 2000

A: There are different types of tigers that live in different climates and habitats (in Asia). Tigers live in climates ranging from tropical rainforests to deciduous forests to cold, mountain hardwood forests (at elevations up to 3,000 feet); some live in dense forests, others live in ares with tall grasses (both of these habitats provide the tiger with hiding places that help it hunt).

For more information on tigers, click here.

from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 2, 2000

A: No one knows, but they are VERY picky about choosing mates.

For more information on pandas, click here.

from MICHELE W, MODESTO, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A; December 2, 2000

A: I didn't think that the panda had much control at all over its habitat (which is why it is on the verge of extinction). The giant panda eat mostly bamboo, and when the bamboo periodically dies off (as it does in nature), the panda migrates to another area where the bamboo is still blooming (this is harder and harder for the panda to do since much of its habitat is fragmented due to the intrusion of people).


A: A male panda is called a boar. For more animal names (male, female, baby, and group), click here.

Q: What do Mamoths look like?
from Matt N., New York City, New York, America; December 1, 2000

A: For information on mammoths, click here.

Q: I was wondering if you had any information on Timimus. I looked and i found Timimus hermani, but the one i need is Timimus timimus. Any informatio would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
from Ronald P., Loxahatchee, Florida, United States; December 1, 2000

A: Timimus hermani is the type species for that genus, and the only species of TImimus that I've heard of (just a few leg bones were found representing an adult and a juvenile). Where did you hear about this new species of Tmimus?

Q: What did the land(physical features)look like during the Jurassic Period?
from Zvart A., Los Angeles, California, The United States of America; December 1, 2000

A: Click here for drawings and information on the Jurassic period.

Q: What dinosaur's bone was found in 1822 in Sussex, England?
from Susy S, Dewitt, NY, USA; December 1, 2000

A: Iguanodon

Q: Why is the time of the dinosaur's extinction called the "K-T"?
from Pammi T, New York City, NY, USA; December 1, 2000

A: The K stands for Kreide (Kreide means chalk in German, and describes the chalky sediment layer from that time period, which gave that period its name) and the T stands for the Tertiary period, the next geologic time period.

Q: My 5th grade class will be holding a debate on the topic of if the Tyrannosaurus Rex was a preditor or a scavenger. I have done other reseach and I am the leader of the scavenger group. Do you have any imformation that I could bring up about jaws and bite of the T -Rex. Please reply ASAP!
from Kate S, Syracuse, NY, USA; December 1, 2000

A: For a page on T. rex's diet and this debate (originated by Jach Horner), click here. For information on T. rex's jaws and teeth, click here.

Q: what does the triceratops look like.
from ?, ?, ?, ?; December 1, 2000

A: Click here for more drawings of Triceratops.

Q: How do Woolly Mammoths eat?
from Travis W, Lisbon, New Hampshire, USA; December 1, 2000

A: It is thought that they used their tusks to help dig up vegetation from beneath the snow. They ate in a manner similar to modern-day elephants. For more information on mammoths, click here. Return to the top of the page.

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