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The Test of Time
A Novel by I. MacPenn

Dr. Tom Holtz and Dr. Michael Brett-Surman Answer Dinosaur Questions:

Dr. Tom Holtz's and Dr. Michael K. Brett-Surman's are the authors of the Jurassic Park Institute (TM) Dinosaur Field Guide, published by Random House. Here are the dinosaur (and other paleontology) questions that they answered for readers of ZoomDinosaurs in July, 2001.

Click on a question to go to the answer.

What exactly inspired you to become a paleontologist? Do you find the horrible errors in the dinosaur movies today an affront to your dedicated work? Do you have trouble trying to correct the myths? from Honkie Tong



how much does the book cost?
what dinos are in it?

from ty l.

Was Spinosaurus larger than T-rex? If so, was it also bigger than Giganotasaurus?
from Shane S.

Which is bigger, Allosaurus fragillis or Allosaurus maximus?I would assume it would be maximus since it has "maximus" in its name and how big did they each get?
from J

I don't understand why Jack Horner insists that virtually all huge meat eating dinosaurs were scavengers. I hear his arguments but the position of others, such as Bob Bakker seam to make more sense (predators and scavengers).
from Don D.

Wouldn't it be evolutionarily disasterous for a dromie (raptor) to attack large, carnviorus prey like a healthy T.rex (like all to many people have excitedly suggested)? I mean unless they were eusocial, attacking a large carnviore like Tyrannosaurus could be extremely bad for passing on your genes. And isn't four "raptors" and unusual number of attackers to lose for attacking a single Tendontosaurus? Has the pack-attack-unfeasibly-large-prey theory been taken to its illogicla limit? (I've heard some people saying the dromies actually killed off every dinosaur around and flew away in UFOs they constructed!!!)
from Honkie Tong


Is it possible to classify a dinosaur species as female or male just by looking at the skeletal structure? If so, what are some differences between the sexes?
from Chelsea

Is it true that some of the herbivores had to move their jaws in a side to side motion to be able to chew their food?
from Chelsea

Is the hippopotamus considered dangerous? Would you say pachyrhinoisaurus used its nasal boss to hit an attacker like ankylosaurus's tail?
from Donovan c.

What kinds of sounds did dinosaurs probably make?
from Someone

Do all dinosaurs Have Tails?
from Reese B.

Hello, I have a question I was wondering if you could help me with a question. Which dinasaur have the urge to migrate? Is it Tyranasaurus Rex, stegasaurus, triceratops, velociraptors. Hope you can help me,thanks.
from Peter S.

Do you think that there is any chance at all dinosauars could ever be cloned if not why.I saw on tv one day they might beable to clone the wolly mammoth
from jim

In the Jurassic Park movies, T-Rex wants to eat people. Is that probable in real life if they were ever to come into contact?
from Jamal

Two questions. 1:Would a pack of at least 6 utahraptors be enough to kill T-rex? 2:Could raptors communicate with each other? (probably not to JP3's extent.)
from Joe Bob B.

Hello again, I have another question in the movie Jurassic Park Dilophosaurus is shown small but in a book i read it was about 20 ft long and weighed up to a ton. Who is right? Or was it not an adult yet?
from Lee.B.

What exactly is it meant by "gracile"? Why are so many people using this word when it comes to describing dinosaur legs? And how come people keep saying T.Rex had extremly "gracile" legs, even more so than the raptors! How is this possible? What implications does this have for T.Rex or the Tyrannosaurids in general?
from C.E.R.A.T.O.

Correct me if I am wrong, but does the Spinosaur in JP3 have its teeth arranged the wrong way round? I thought the largest teeth were up in front of the snout to aid it in snaring fish. How come the JP3 Spinosaurus looks like it has large maximillinary (wrong spelling I know), teeth in the movie. Also, what's up with the curved teeth of the Spinosaurus, is this accucrate? I though their teeth had virtually no recurvature. On teeth also. What exactly was so special about Tyrannosaurus teeth that allowed them to bite so much harder than any species of dinosaur known, to the point of being capable of biting a chunk out of a Triceratops frill? Did this ability to also rend bone give it an advantage over other predators in terms of attacking other animals? Given that, I think it's likely he could attack a Land Rover or a light Aircraft he he wanted, though I doubt he would have been dumb enough to attack something with too little food value at all. Also as a final question. Are Tyrannosaurids more intelligent and complex compaired to other large carnivores like Giganotosaurus? What advantage did it serve?
from C.E.R.A.T.O.

WHat is a dinosaur?
from Roy

Who named the dinosuars dinosuars?
from Ahetitias

Hello in college i studed to become a paleontologist but i didnt finish. I finished as a dentist. Can u tell me the newest dinosuar that was found and by who?
from Bob L.

I was wondering, Could Velociraptor use it's claws to groom itself, if it did at all, and you would think that in the Jurassic Park movies the Raptors would be able to learn how to get the food out of the old vending machines, right, what would the leader of a pack of Raptors be called, and 'Alpha'? All this thinking is making my head hurt...
from Adamspva

Would Suchomimus have a better chance of beating T-rex? I know Jurassic Park 3 made Spinosaurus bigger and a lot tougher than he was in real life, so he would probably get killed in real life. from Joe Bob B.

I read your field guide, and I liked it. It said that the spinosaurus weighed up to 8 tons. Alot of site said it weighed only 4-6 tons. Was this an inaccuracy from a new discovery. And were you guys consultants for the movie.(Besides Jack Horner) from T-man

So do you think the Suchimimis and Spinosaurus were like alligators and crocodiles, that they fed on both and large land animals. from ?

Me Again! How Fast Could Spinosaurus Run? from Euoplacephalus

I don't really think the spinosaurus really swimmed in the movie, i think it was walking on the bottom on river. Then it jumped up on the boat. And if a spinosaurus,T-rex, or any really big carnosaur stepped on a plane wouldn't it crush it like he does in the movie. from T-man

I'm really ticked off with a paleotolongist's son! We can never agree on anything about dinos! He says Dilophosaurus could spit poison and had little holes in its teeth and a space in its skull for poison glands! He also said When Dinosaurs Roamed America was full of baloney! His father isn't very famous and mainly works in the lab so I don't know his name... What do you think?! from Samuel

Do you think the raptors should have been called deinonychus instead of veliraptor, since it lived Montana and was the same size as the movie raptors. I wonder why they didn't use deinonychus for the movies and books. from T-man

Name all the types of Spinosaurus. from Chandler

What is the longest snout ever found of Suchomimus? How long were the claws? What was the largest Dilophosaurus ever found and why did Jurassic Park put a frill on it and made it a spitter? from Parker

I love Velocirpaptor, he's one of my favorite dinosaurs. I have 2 questions. Could Veloiciraptor run very fast, and how smart was it compared to other animals of today? from Adamspva

This question has to do with the Jurrasic Park 3 film. Could the pterosaurs pick up and carry a person as shown in the film? from Joe

Hi. In the Jurassic Park 3 movie, T.Rex and Spinosaurus have a fight. While I agree with your theory that if Spinosarus grabbed hold of T.Rex it would have probably killed it, at the start of the fight the T.Rex gets in the first move, biting Spinosaurus on the neck. If this really happened in real life wouldn't the T.Rex have killed the Spinosaurus? T.Rex's jaws were probably the most powerful of the big carnovores and its teeth were curved for crushing, so is it unrealistic that Spinosaurus would remain unscathed after being bitten on the neck? Also, were Spinosaurus' teeth really that much bigger than T.Rex's in reality? from Neil

How fast would T. rex run? from audrey

How big were newly-hatched T. rexes and what was their life span? from kate

I keep seeing flying reptiles, like pteradon, in books as dinosaurs. And swimming dinosaurs too. But in a class the teacher said that all dinosaurs live on land, don't fly or live in the water. She also said that they have bones that come straight down from there hip bones and that makes them different from other reptiles. But then I've seen some in books that look like crocodiles and it says they're dinosaurs. Who is right? Are the books old or what? Thanks! from Terri

Why do sharp teeth dinosaurs only eat meat? from Livvy

Me again. Is the Paralititan dinosaur a new find? I read that its humerus is 14% longer than those of other Cretaceous sauropods. And is Argentinosaurus a possible relative? Why is this suggested? from Chelsea

When I see pictures of a Tyrannosaurus Rex walking with their tail raised in the air that doesn't look right to me. That tail was big and heavy and it would seem to me they would get tired always holding their tail in the air. Small lizards can hold their tail in the air because they are light. My guess is T-Rex only raised their tail when walking to balance themself and when they stood still the tail would rest on the ground. I made this point because I always see pictures of T-Rex with their tail raised. from S

What kind of environment/biome did T-rex live in? from Anna

Once again, it's me! In JP3, when the Spinosaurus kills T. Rex, i heard T. Rex died when it was bitten on the neck! Spinosaurus' teeth were common of it's family: Small, crocodile-like teeth best suited for hunting fish or small mammals and lizards! Plus when the plane crashes into Spinosaurus, it survives and destroys the plane! Spinosaurus coulden't have killed T. Rex with a bite to the neck, let alone crush a plane with it's teeth. They made Spinosaurus like a dino which wore armor and had surgical-steel teeth! Besides, the engine and propellers would badly hurt it, if not kill it! Plus, they show Spinosaurus swimming in the water. The only aquatic dinosaurs in the Mezozoic were the Hesperonis family! Spinosaurus is NOT as cracked up as JP3 makes it! from Samuel

What is the largest dinosaur ever discovered?
Was Tyrannosaurus Rex a scavenger or a hunter or a combination of both? What use were its front legs? Have any dinosaur fossils/bones been found in Southern California? If so, where and when?
What do you think led to the extinction of the dinosaurs?
from Maureen

My 13 year-old daughter is very interested in dinosaurs. Her favorite book is Bakker's The Dinosaur Heresies (she reads at a high level for her age). I mean no disrespect to Bakker, but I would like to get her used to the ideas of other paleontologists as well. I think it will benefit her to have experience with differing views so that she can learn to weigh them each based on their merits, and develop her own theories and ideas based on facts and observation. Can you suggest some other books that are written on a similar level? I would like to get her a variety of views on dinosaurs and how they lived, but I don't want to get her books that she will dismiss as being too simplistic or be unable to comprehend.
Thank you for your time.
from Jeff

In our second grade science textbook it states that if an animal either flew or swam it was not considered a true dinosaur. Is this true? from Jill

You stated that some of the information in Walking with Dinosaurs was incorrect. My four year loves the video and the book and quotes the info daily (he has now added to his research materials Allosaurus and When Dinosaurs Roamed America) To keep his knowledge correct should I get the Book Walking with Dinosaurs The Evidence? Also was the info incorrect because of new information or because of the stories they were telling about each of the dinosaurs? One more - What is the most complete book on dinosaurs? Thank you. from Laura

Could a Spinosaurus go under water and be deep enough to only be showing it's spine? Was it amphibious? from Killeen

What in the heck was Deinocheirus? It had to be a meat-eater. What did it hunt? Big sauropods? That thing is scary! from Paul

Did Dinosaurs fly? from Burt

What was smarter, a velociraptor or a Dienonychus from Velociraptor prez

Me again. I have two questions: One: Do you plan on watching When Dinosaurs Roamed America tonight on the Disc. Channel at 8:00? Two: How much do we know about the Cretacious flying dinosaurs (i.e., the birds) such as Ibernisornis, Hespironis, and the other birds that lived with the non-avian dinosaurs? from Samuel

I know this Spinosaurus thing is starting to get annoying, but is JP3 taking liberties with Spinosaurus? It seems awfully fat and out of shape, not to mention large to the lightly built animal the scientific community is used to. And are Jack Horner's estimates of a 60 foot, 8 foot skull Spino excessive? He seems rather bent on his T.Rex is a scavenger idea and it seems to carry onto the movie... from Lillian

Another question from me. I've noticed that our view of theTyrannosaurids is slowly changing from the solitary hunter-scavenger to the social predator. Is it likely that Tyrannosaurids like Albertosaurus and Tyrannosaurus could have been highly social in their behaviour. I've heard that the injuries found on them seem to indicate they were antisocially social. If this is the case, has the public been resistant to the idea? from Lillian

Scientists suspect that Giganotosaurus hunted in packs. However I find that such a large creature hunting in packs quite unlikely. Even if it did the pack wouldn't be able to stay in area for too long or else they would unbalance the habitat because such large creatures must consume about 800lbs of food a day each. What is your opinion of such a large creature hunting in packs? from Scott

How did the dinosaurs evolve into such big creatures? from Curdworth

What is the current state of dromeosaurid research, and does any new research contradict John Ostrom's studies? from DW

If they call the movie Jurassic Park that, then why did they have Cretacious animals in it like Tyrannosaurus Rex, Triceratops, and Velociraptor. from Austin

how did dinosaurs die from

Spinosaurus was not really as mean as he was made out in Jurassic Park III was he? from Damean

I heard that the Spinosaurus kills the Tyrannosaurus in JP///. Is it really possible that a Spinosaurus could kill a Tyrannosaurus? from Firebird

Are dinosaurs classified as reptiles or are they in their own class? from Efland

What is the most complete dinosaur fossil found so far? from Kate

How do dinosaurs feed their young? from Kenosha

How has our view of what dinosaurs might have looked like changed through the years? How has this paralleled our knowledge of dinosaur biology? Are dinosaurs still believed to be cold-blooded or has that changed? Why has our view changed? Has the discovery of new dinosaur species added to the confusion or helped redefine it? from Gerald

If birds evolved from saurischian dinosaurs, why does ornithischian mean bird-hipped? from William

If you are writing a book on Jurassic Park, are you going to point out any errors in the movie? For example, the Velociraptors being too big (that myth still persists today, a loyal misconception from the first movie), The Dilos having no frill and being quite a big bigger, the Spinosaurus being reconstructed virtually wrong in every expect in regard to proportion and size and how smart the raptors really were? (I've heard current theories don't put the raptors at being really smart at all) Given your profesion, why don't you audit something for a more accucrate dinosaur series like Walking With Dinosaurs?

Alright, alright, I know its just a movie, but these inaccuracies really bug me, and kids can be surprisingly knowledgable. from Colin

What did dicynodonts use to dig roots and to protect themselves? from Donovan

How Many Eggs Can A Maisaura Lay? from Euoplocephalus

In some old dinosaur books I have checked out from the library say that hadrosaurs may have supplemented their vegetarian diet with a clam or other shellfish. Is this true? from Samuel

What's the weight of lystrosarus?I know this question is not asked before. from Donovan

In A Book I Read Stegosaurus Had The Brain The Size Of 4 Or 5 Walnuts.Is This True? from Austin

Please tell me if there is such a thing as "pseudo-dinosaur eggs" and how do I go about finding someone who can tell me if I have really found dinosaur eggs and bones???? lots of them...

Thank you,

from Vi

What were the dinosaur's lifespans?
from Bob K

Is is possible for dinosaur's DNA to be found in good enough condition to be cloned? Or would it be too damaged to work.
from Kate

Hi. I want to know how the the brontosaurus is so big and had such tiny babies. How could they keep them safe? How did they hold them without breaking them?
from Avia S

Is the Raptor a pack hunter and how do you know?
from Matt

What was the weight of T-Rex?
from Ezol

Isn't 8 tons a hefty estimate for Spinosaurus? I though we have had some indications that this animal from the original fossils (though sadly they are no longer with us), despite its size, was quite lightly built for its length. Are we simply scaling up from a supposed six-foot skull and coming up with an estimate based on the average weights of carnosauria with that certain head size? If so, I supposed these estimates will be a little on the extreme end until more complete specimes of Spinosaurs are found and our understanding of this genera more complete.

And one more question about the arms. Correct me, but do they seem slung too low to be easily used as effective offensive weapons against large prey? I mean this was no kangeroo and rearing up to use these arms are not as easy (I'm basing this on Stroner's Spinosaurus reconstruction)? Or is Stroner mistaken?
from Leonard

Is there a difference between Tyranosaurus rex and NanoTyrannous lancensis? If so,what differences and how big are they?
from J

You say that in cloning dinosaurs the genomes have to be complete.What if they took the genomes form a different dinosaur of the same species and could blen them together? Would that be possible?
from J

From reading all these questions and answers,which seem to me that most involve something about a Tyranosaursus and/or Spinosaurus,the Tyranosaurus rex is so different from other therapods it's actually kind of scary.Was there a reason for Tyranosaurs rex to be so different like have a more powerful bite and have his teeth set different from other predators? Or was that the way they just evolved,to be THE ultimate predator?
from J

If Spinosaurus was larger then T-rex, how come T-rex was the largest Dinosaur from 1905-1995 and spinosaurus was discovered in 1915?
from Ana N.

Besides Giganotosaurus,was there any dinosaur larger than T-Rex?
from Ana N.

I was looking up stuff on Megaraptor when I happened upon a website saying that Megaraptor may not be related to Velociraptor or Utahraptor because U.Raptor an V.Raptor where found on laurasie and M.Raptor was found on Gondwanaland.This site actually had a quote from you on it,Dr.Holtz.Here is the web address And what i would really like to know is if they are related or not.
from J

Who was bigger argentinosaurus or sauroposeidon?
from Ana

How big did the spinosaurus's teeth get?
from T-man

Warning! Rave alert.

These "improbabble dino fights" questions are quite popular here, and I suppose as a paleontologist, its not really part of your job to delve deep into the morphlogy of the dinosaurs just as to find out the results of the fight (not unless if you want to keep a salary anyway!) But could you entertain this?

Based on the morphlogy of Spinosaurus (and Spinosaurs in general), I suppose that its quite impossible to break the neck of a Tyrannosaurus simply by biting it. (Not expecially since Tyrannosaurus could not even faze the neck of a Spinosaurus with its vaunted bite!) So unless the Tyrannosaurus was suffering from some brittle-bone disease or the Spinosaurus had 1000 horsepower of munching power (hey wait! the anatromic Spino had, but I think we should stick to the organic version), breaking the heavy neck of Tyrannosaurus so easily as show in the movie is well...nuts. However, I do agree if Spinosaurus got a good grip on the neck of Tyrannosaurus, it could be in for some serious trouble though. Though the extremly muscular neck of Tyrannosaurus might buy it some time, it's a position it would want to be in.

Sorry for the rambling, but now on the my question. Though it would be a bad thing if Spinosaurus bit Tyrannosaurus, my understanding is, the only way that Spinosaurus could kill Tyrannosaurus in a jiffy was if it snared it on the neck. Of course, the arms of the S. aegyptiacus are probably its best weapon. The problem is that they are slung below the body, and cannot flap. This severely restricts the use of the strong arms. (They would be good for fishing, though!) But all in all, I'd expect Tyrannosaurus to survive a good number of Spinosaurus bites. And not to mention the ability of Spinosaurus to get a good hold on Tyrannosaurus is suspect due to its relatively straight and not-as-well-rooted teeth, and narrow jaws.

Now however, if a Tyrannosaurus bit a Spinosaurus though, there are very bad repercussions. A bite that powerful does a lot of damage and would be extremely crippling to the animal no matter where it hit. And if Tyrannosaurus got a good grip on Spinosaurus anywhere, it's quite unlikely Spinosaurus is going to shake free from a 20,000 newton bite without sustaining major damage.

And if the Tyrannosaurus employed a run in and bite the thigh and run out attack, (which he could have done on large and dangerous animals like point in wrestling this herbivore!) this would be extremely bad for the Spinosaurus. There is no reason to say that the S. aegyptiacus was faster or more agile than the Tyrannosaurus, and I think I can say that fairly, in other words, I'm saying that not just because Tyrannosaurus is my favorite.

And that's one major reason I say that the Tyrannosaurus would have somewhat of an unfair advantage over the Spinosaurus. Tyrannosaursu was exclusively specialized, to take out big animals with its mouth as quickly and as possibly (not to mention gruesomely). And that's what it would do to the S. aegyptiacus. Ability and weapons matter here, not size, and the T. rex has the advantage in both areas.

Erm, am I correct to assume that?
from Lillian T.

In the JP3 movie the raptors had feathers, is that true?
from Katie V.

Me again. Do you think dinosaurs were warm-blooded? Why?
from Katie V.

how tall were the tyranosaurs?
from Nick B

hello there sirs,

i would like to say that i really appreciate your dedicated work on this subject and think that answering these questions is a great thing youre doing. would you consider answering this question for me though, and im sure youve heard it many times...

spinosaurus could kill a t-rex i believe, am i right? looking at the message boards it seems as though many people feel this is incorrect, however i think they are just used to thinking t-rex baddest boy around. couldnt it be true that spinosaurus could defeat the t-rex? also in the movie they started fighting right away. i know they were seperated by millions of years and continents, but if they did step toe to toe by chance i believe it wouldve gone more like a traditional fight between two male lions. they would maybe growl, and get the fight over with before any real damage happened because one of them would have probably backed off, right?

could give me some specs on spinosaurus? ive been a dino fan since i was a kid....i loved all the old movies, like valley of the gwangi, etc.....i used to love t-rex, but my love for modern crocs and alligators has made me absolutely love spinosaurus.

also i am an avid researcher in the field of cryptozoology. do you believe that pterosaurs and apatosaurus could still be around in remote areas? there are eye witnesses to pterosaurs even being around in south texas. what do you think?
from SpinosaurusFanForLife

Do you think giganotosaurus could beat t.rex?(I think it could) For one thing, giganotosaurus was bigger,and had a much bigger skull. Even as we speak,larger-younger relatives of giganotosaurus keep turning up,in the southern hemisphere! The sharklike teeth alone are a pretty good size!(but I guess it doesn't matter that much, if you have bone crushing teeth,does it?) I know giganotosaurus did not have as big a brain as t.rex,or as solid construction,but I have reason to believe that giganotosaurus would ultimately win in a deathmatch. There's no doubt in my mind,that t.rex was pound for pound,a more effective predator, but i'm pretty sure giganotosaurus was capable of killing most of the same prey. (including horned dinosaurs,and definitely hadrosaurs) If you seen a giganotosaurus on display you'll know what i'm talking about! I'm dying to get this question answered!
from Sean.S

1. Is the Tyrannosaurus Imperator a legitimate fossil?

2. How come there are less talk about aquatic carnivorous reptiles in the Mesozoic Era? They may very well be the "real deal" carnivorous reptiles. What's the largest aquatic carnivorour reptile discovered? Kronosaurus? How big is his mouth? 10 feet? That clearly makes any T-Rex look like a wimp.

3. Is the fact that dinosaurs can stand (unlike the belly-hugging-the-ground (crawling) reptiles living today) a proof that dinosaurs are warm blooded? Cuz from what I read, it takes a lot of body metabolism for an animal to even stand and walk.
from Guile

How do you tell achelousaurus and pachyrhinosaurus apart? Also do you think that when the nasal boss of pachyrhinosaurus hit an attacker,would those spikes in the middle of the frill stab at the same time?
from Donovan c.

Is lystrosaurus the smallest dicynodont?
from Donovan c.

I've noticed that unique things about Spinosaurus include thoracic and caudal vertebrae that are about twice as long as on other theropods. This extended vertebral column adds a huge amount to the length of the animal. It was a laterally thin animal, and had a shallower rib cage, like compsognathids and dilophosaurs. In that case, a Spinosaurus would be quite light for an animal of it's length. So even with it being 50 feet excess, it still would have been quite "light" wouldn't it? It was clearly a gigantic but oddly light animal! So prehaps I'm not to sure length is a good size or weight estimate. I mean Tyrannosaurids have massively built bodies but slighter tails, so they would have been much heavier than animals their length. (Like A.Fragilis or Maximus).
from Leonard

I find the subject of raptors intriguing, but I do have a question. Since the raptors were bipedial and relatively lightly-built, their back legs would have been essential to their survival. Almost any injury to such important structures would have been rapidly fatal to a creature relying on pursuit speed and kicking power. And wouldn't kicking a large and angry herbivore that basically consists of thick skin over huge muscles, ribs, pelvic bones, scutes, shields and flailing limbs that would have made vital organs difficult targets risky? Aside from the likely humiliation of breaking a nail, they would have been at high risk for shattering a leg trying such tactics, and that would have made them losers in Darwin's evolutionary derby. Perhaps that is why they had all but vanished by the mid-Cretaceous, giving way to the smash-mouth hunting tactics of the Tyrannosaurs?

Is it more likely that Raptors mostly used their razor-like teeth on smaller prey. If they did use claws, it was probably the impressive armament on their forelimbs which would have been much easier to control and less risky to survival if injured? If so, would the sickle claws be used only as a display structure (like a rooster) or a weapon evolved mainly for defense like the large slashing claw on the cassowary? These birds are incredibly dangerous when trapped in close quarters although they are more likely to run away than take chances with their valuable legs in a battle. It makes sense to risk an incapacitating injury only if the alternative is being eaten. The fossil of the Velociraptor vs. Protoceratops seems to elude towards the raptors using these claws for defense. If this is the case, prehaps the raptors may not have been as deadly as they are commonly shown, though they would have been deadly enough. But I find the idea of 1-ton Utahraptors leaping onto a sauropod to dispatch it extremely risky for the raptors, despite the birth rate! Could there be any fossil evidence to show conclusively that the raptors used their claws for hunting (like we have conclusive evidence of Tyrannosaurs hunting)?
from Leonard

Hi. I have a couple of questions. I have an Australian book that states that a footprint genus indicates that there possibly was a Tyrannosauroid on that continent. Do you know anything about that? I was also curious about a rumor I heard about T. rex skin impressions having been discovered. Is that true? My last question involves T. rex once again. Is the Jack Horner-discovered "C-rex" larger than Giganotosaurus and the other Carcharodontosaurines, or is it just a little smaller?
Thanks! Nice Book, by the way.

from A. P.

I have read that the supposed lifetime of a single Brachiosaurus was 100 years. How are you able to guess how old a dinosaur species may have lived to be? Do the bones have rings inside that suggest this, such as in a tree's trunk?
from Chelsea

Hi, in the movie JP3 Paleontologist makes a vocal cord of a raptor and it makes a sound of what a raptor sounded like. Candocters do this in these days to see what dinosuars sounded like?
from Lee.B

Hi, I have another question why did Paleontologist rename Brontosaurus to Apatosuarus?
from Lee.B

When is your book coming to bookstores?
from Shane S., age 1000, nowhere, ??????????, ??????; July 26, 2001

MIKE: It is already there! What are you waiting for????????

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