Amethyst is a purple gemstone.
Everything is made up of tiny atoms.
Crystals are solids whose atoms form a very regular pattern.
A diamond is a very hard, shiny jewel.
An emerald is a hard, shiny, deep green jewel.
Gems sparkle and shine.
A geyser is a natural hot spring that occasionally sprays water and steam above the ground.
Geology is the study of the Earth’s structure, including rocks and minerals.
A glacier is a large, slowly-moving river of ice.
Gold is a precious metal. Coins and jewelry are made from gold. The Sacajawea US dollar coin above looks like gold.
Granite is a common type of igneous rock. Granite is formed in a slow cooling process.
When molten rock cools, igneous rock is formed.
Impact craters are the remains of collisions between an asteroid or meteorite and the Earth.
Iron is a common metal that is used for many things, like train tracks, pots, and pipes.
Lava is molten rock. It comes out of erupting volcanoes.
Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock that is made of the skeletons of tiny microorganisms.
A magnet attracts things made of iron.
Marble is a beautiful metamorphic rock.
A metal is an element that has a crystalline structure when it is solid form. Many metals are shiny and many conduct electricity. Some metals include iron, copper, silver, and gold.
Metamorphic rocks are compacted by pressure and heat from deep inside the earth.
A mineral is a naturally-occurring solid whose molecules form a regular pattern (usually forming crystals). Some common minerals include quartz, salt, diamond, and feldspar.
A pebble is a small, smooth stone.
Quartz is a common crystalline mineral.
A rock is a hard mineral, also called a stone. The Earth’s crust is made of rock.
A ruby is a hard, shiny, red jewel.
Salt is an important crystalline mineral that we use to season our food.
Sand is a loose material composed of fine debris of rock and mineral particles.
Sapphire is a blue gemstone.
Sedimentary rock is rock that has formed from sediment and is where most fossils are found.
Silver is a valuable metal; it is also the shiniest metal. Some coins and jewelry are made from silver.
Plants grow in soil.
A solid is a matter in which the molecules are very close together and cannot move around. Ice, quartz, and diamonds are solids.
A stone is a rock.
A streak is a long mark or stripe of color.
A tsunami is a rare, giant series of waves caused by an underwater earthquake or other large-scale, underwater disturbance.
A volcano is a mountainous vent in the Earth’s crust. When a volcano erupts, it spews out lava, ashes, and hot gases from deep inside the Earth.
Water is a liquid that we drink and use to wash. Water covers over two thirds of the surface of the Earth, and much of our body is made of water.
A well is a deep hole in the ground from which you get water.